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3 March 2006


Sarah Halfmoon  (Provided by Descendant,
Laurence  D. Heady) [I am trying to find the photograph so that I can try to improve this image. Editor]

HALFMOON, Sarah - Sarah Halfmoon was born on the Delaware Indian Reservation near Fort Leavenworth, Kansas in October of 1839 or 1840. Her mother was Eliza Conner, the daughter of Mekinges and granddaughter of Ahkechelungunaqua of the Turtle Clan, matrilineal descent. Sarah's father, Bill Halfmoon, died either shortly before or after her birth. Her stepfather was George Bullette, a man of French and Lenape heritage. During the final removal of the Delaware in the late 1860s, she moved with members of her family to lands along the Verdigris River, Cooweescoowee District, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory (Nowata County, Oklahoma). She was noted for her eccentricities, including the fact that she would speak only Lenape of French and pretend not to understand English. Sarah could not abide fools and often advised others not to trust anyone who didn't like horses or dogs. She was officially a full-blood Delaware. She was married several times to mixed-blood Cherokee and Delaware men. She apparently already had two children by the time of her first marriage to Albert Compston. (See the Biography of their daughter Ella Eliza Compston, just below) Tradition holds that she was a great supporter of the Dalton Boys, often giving them, food and shelter when they were fugitives. After their violent death on the streets of Coffeyville, Kansas, an ordinance was passed making it a crime to decorate their graves. Ignoring the law, Sarah continued to place flowers on the outlaws' graves until she died. She was a devout Baptist for over 80 years. She died in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, on December 7, 1934, the oldest member of the Delaware Tribe.
(For documentation, comments,  or questions, contact Descendant Laurence D. Heady lenapelh@hotmail.com with an information to Editor, swiftwater@lenapedelawarehistory.net  Larry has additional personal information that he will share with family members.)
     1. COMPSTON, Ella Eliza was the daughter of Sarah Halfmoon and Albert Euing (or Ewing) Compston, described above. Ella was presumably born on the Verdigris River, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory in 1970. She went by the name "Ella". Ella married Joshua Bonaparte Heady, also known as "J. B" or "Bud" Heady, sometime after legal charges against her mother, Sarah Halfmoon, were resolved. J. B. had been the deputy U.S. Marshal who was dispatched from Fort Smith to arrest her. Apparently he was born in Green County, Missouri, in 1858 or 1859, and lived in Missouri and Arkansas for much of his early life. He was the son of Eli P. Heady and Mary Ann "Polly" Presley and was of undocumented mixed Cherokee and Anglo-American heritage. He first wife was Elizabeth Berlew (1860-1929) and he had two or three children of that union. It is unknown under what circumstances J. B left his former wife and children. He served as a deputy United States marshal for the Western District of Arkansas--the district of "Hanging Judge" Isaac Parker of Fort Smith. J. B. was among the marshals that maintained peace and order in the lawless Indian Territory immediately after the Civil War. He swore oaths of office in 1887, 1889, and 1895, all signed by Judge Parker. He was probably an Indian Territory "posse man" prior to 1887 and he rode with Frank Dalton and others. J. B. served as a deputy U. S. Marshal for the Western District of Arkansas--the district of "Hanging Judge" Isaac Parker of Fort Smith. J. B. was among the marshals who maintained peace and order in the lawless Indian Territory after the Civil War. He swore oaths of office in 1887, 1889, and 1895, all signed by Judge Parker. J. B. Heady and Ella (Compston) Heady maintained a large house in Watova, Cooweescoowee District, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, that still stands today. There are many stories about J. B.'s adventures as a marshal and as an oil company agent. He wasn't beyond making whiskey during the Prohibition or hiding a fugitive who was a friend of the family. J. B. died in Nowata County, Oklahoma, in 1935. Ella has been described as a very warm, loving and long-suffering woman, simply referred to as "Mother". She is on the Dawes Roll No. 31501, along with her children. and is listed as one-half Delaware blood quantum. Ella died in Nowata County, Oklahoma, in 1949. She and J. B. had nine children:
       1. Alba Heady married Chance
2. Frank Heady, named for Frank Dalton
3. Ada Heady
4. Leona Heady, also known as Princess Wyhnemah, was born in Cooweescoowee District, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, the daughter of Ella Eliza Compston and James Bonaparte "J. B." Heady. Leona was a screen actress of some notoriety. Princess Wyhnemah was her screen name. She played in numerous B-movies of the period and was a founding member of the  Indian Screen Actors Guild. She apparently was a good friend of Indian actor Jay Silverwheels. She spent most of her life in Southern California pursuing her acting career. She was  loving and supportive of her younger siblings. Her brother Euing [James Euing] Heady was much influenced  by her and spent much time with her in California. Leona Heady died in California, but was buried in Nowata County, Oklahoma.
       5. Oneida Heady
 6. Clay (for Henry Clay) Heady
7. James Euing Heady was born in Cooweescoowee District Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, in 1901, the son of Ella Eliza Compston and James Bonaparte Heady. He appears on the Dawes Cherokee Roll, No. 31508, along with his mother Ella and all her other children. He was of dark complexion and very handsome. Toward the end of World War One, Euing enlisted in the army and was attached to a cavalry unit stationed in Southern California. According to oral history, Euing got homesick for a girl in Kansas  and rode a horse all the way from California to Kansas. He married an unknown woman  in Kansas, but the marriage was later annulled. There was one child of that union. Sometime later he married Violet May Hightower and had two children, Zelda Heady and Edythe Wyvonna Heady. He then married Sylvia Remington Price. They  had one child, Arthur Euing Heady who was born 1930 and who died in 1959. He married  Pauline Anita Babb (living). They had two children, Laurence D. Heady and Cathy Lynn Heady (both living). He was later estranged from Sylvia, but apparently they didn't divorce. Later, he had a common-law marriage with Eva Althea Young. Karee (Heady)  Hada was the only child of that union. Euing role the rodeo circuit for a while, during which time he met Eva Althea. Euing spent much of his life in and out of hospitals while being treated for tuberculosis, and he died in 1949 in a Veterans Administration  hospital in Southern California. After hearing of Euing's death, his wife, Sylvia took her own  life.
         8. Blanche Heady
         9. Ruth Heady     
(For documentation, comments,  or questions, contact Descendant Laurence D. Heady lenapelh@hotmail.com with an information to Editor, swiftwater@lenapedelawarehistory.net  . Larry, a member of the Delaware Tribe of Indians from Mi9nnesota,  has additional personal information that he will share with family members. He is the son of Arthur Euing Heady and the grandson of J. B. Heady  and Sylvia Remington Price.)  

JOHNSON, Thomas.
[Image of T. Johnson]





(The article below was Submitted by Arlene Micucci (Kansas Delaware) from William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas, Chicago: 1883, Part 6, Indian History, "Early Missionaries." This article was a part of the Kansas Collection of Books from the University of Kansas.)

Thomas Johnson, whose history is so intimately connected with the introduction of civilization and Christianity among the Indian tribes lately inhabiting the territory now included in the State of Kansas, was born in Virginia, July 11, 1802. He died by assassination January 2, 1865. Being one of a large family of children whose parents possessed limited means, he was thrown almost entirely upon himself for his own support and education. He came, when comparatively young, to Missouri, where by economy and close study, he prepared himself for the ministry in the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he was a member. His first labors as a minister, were in the Missouri Conference, where he filled a number of pastoral charges so successfully as to give him considerable prominence among his brother ministers.

After the Indian Tribes, i. e., the Shawnees, Delawares, Wyandots, Kaws, Kickapoos, etc., were moved from their previous locations, into the territory lying immediately west of the Missouri line, and intersected by the Kaw River, the Methodist Church - a church always ready and willing to do pioneer work - resolved to follow them with its Gospel agencies, and establish missions among them. Some of these tribes, however, especially the Wyandots, had been the subjects of Missionary labor in their old homes. The great body of those Indians, however, except the Wyandots, were in a state of heathenism. The fact that Mr. Johnson was the first one selected to go as a missionary to the then powerful tribe of the Shawnees, is indicative of the high standing he occupied in the eyes of his church. He entered the territory (now Kansas) in the year 1829. Whatever Christian influences may have been brought to bear upon the Shawnees, previous to that time, must have been temporary in their effects. As a tribe they were emphatically heathen, from the chiefs down to their lowest subjects.

Mr. Johnson's heart was in the work, and being naturally a man of great energy, he entered his new field with that enthusiasm and hopefulness which characterize every such man entering upon a new and cherished enterprise. But - as is so often the case - he met with disappointment. It is said that Dr. Carey, the great missionary, labored seven years in India before he made the first convert. Mr. Johnson was not doomed to labor quote so long as Dr. Carey. Ye he did labor long and hard, before he saw any adequate fruits of his labors. Those stolid Indians seemed as impervious to all Gospel influence as is the granite rock to the falling rain. A less determined man would have become discouraged and would probably have quite the field. But Mr. Johnson was not the man to yield to any obstacles less than insuperable. This seeming failure only drove him nearer to the cross, caused his faith to lay hold more firmly upon the divine promises, and prompted him to put forth still greater efforts in his work.

At length the Word so faithfully preached began to "prevail." It not only began but it continued to prevail, and to prevail mightily The chief of the nation was among the first converts. This effectually broke down the opposition. A great revival ensured, until there was formed a large congregation of believers. From this beginning the good work continued to grow. Mr. Johnson early felt the importance of schools for the education of the Indian youth. Indeed, he saw that without schools it would be an almost hopeless task to bring up the tribe to even a medial state of civilization. Accordingly he went to work in that direction, doing the best he could with his limited means. He organized a few small schools in such localities as would best accommodate the children to be taught. But he soon found that schools on this plan were unsatisfactory. Meantime he had conceived the idea of a great central school, not only for the Shawnees, but for such other tribes as might be willing to send their children to it.

About the same time, the U. S. Government, having to pay yearly large amounts to these tribes in the way of annuities, was contemplating the project of devoting part of this annuity fund to the establishing of schools against them. The result was that a contract was entered into between the Government and the Methodist Episcopal Church, in which provision was made for the erection of suitable buildings, and for the boarding, clothing and education of a certain number of Indian children. The church was to do a specified part, and the Government a specified part. The proposed institution was to be a manual labor school, and it was projected on quite a large scale.

It was located but a little more than a mile from the State line of Missouri, and about three miles southwest of the town of Westport, Mo., and seven miles from Kansas City. Three large brick buildings were erected, standing scarcely a stone's throw apart, and so situated, relatively, that straight lines joining them to each other would form a triangle. Near the center of this triangle was a large, never-failing spring of pure water, which yielded a plentiful supply for the purposes of the whole mission. I mention these particulars to show that the planner of this large and unique establishment was a natural-born engineer. Connected with the mission was a carpenter's shop, a blacksmith shop, a shoemaker's shop, a steam grist mill, a saw mill, etc. Such of the boys as desired to learn trades were put into these shops under the tuition of skilled workmen. There was also a large farm of several hundred acres belonging to the mission, where such of the boys as did not care to learn a trade were inducted into the mysteries of the agricultural arts.

The female department was in a separate building from the male. Much of the success of this department (for it was very successful) was due to the remarkable efficiency of the matron whose services Mr. Johnson was fortunate in securing, viz., Mrs. Stateler, wife of the venerable L. R. Stateler, now of Montana. So large a number of girls in one school were never better managed. They were not only well drilled in the common school literature, but they also were skillfully inducted into a knowledge of all such domestic offices and duties as pertain to the sex in the more refined circles of society. Aside from superintending this school, Mr. Johnson was constantly engaged in "labors more abundant" in building up the other missions of which he had charge. After undergoing, for ten or twelve years, those hardships and exposures inseparable from his work, Mr. Johnson's health failed to such an extent that he was compelled to resign his place.

In order that he might be where he could have the care of the best physicians, he moved with his family to Cincinnati. He there spent between one or two years under medical treatment. Having by this time partially recovered his health, but still being unable to re-enter the mission work, he procured a quiet home for himself and family near the town of Fayette, Howard County, Mo. It was there the present writer first made his acquaintance. Meantime, the Indian Manual Labor School had been under the care of several Superintendents in succession - all good men. But the friends of the school felt the great loss it had all the while sustained, in being deprived of the superior administrative ability of its first Superintendent.

Mr. Johnson's health having now recovered, he was prevailed upon by his brethren to re-enter the work. Accordingly, in the fall of 1847, he was re-appointed Superintendent of the school and missions in the tribes before names. On his return to the school, he found many young men and women among the pupils who, having grown up in the school, had advanced through the common school branches, and who were desirous of obtaining a knowledge of the higher branches. This suggested to Mr. Johnson the policy of organizing an academic department for the benefit of these advanced pupils. During a visit which he soon after made to Fayette, he persuaded, the present writer (it did not require much persuasion) to resign his place in Howard High School, and go with him and take charge of his contemplated academy. This academy, or academical department, was opened simultaneously with the regular session of the school in September, 1848. This new departure in the history of the school - though undertaken rather as an experiment - proved a decided success. Several scores of young gentlemen and young ladies from "across the line," and some even from the distant parts of Missouri, possessing limited means, and yet desiring to enjoy the advantages of a classical school, were admitted into this department. This brought whites and Indians into close competition in the race for knowledge, and gave rise to an emulation both laudable and salutary. And I just say, touching the capabilities of the two races, that those Indian scholars whose previous advantages had been equal to those of their white competitors, were not a white behind them in this contest for the laurels of scholarship. The success of this department, as well as that of the whole school, I attribute largely to the able management of our Superintendent. While at the head of that institution, he was the right man in the right place. In the first place he possessed strong, practical, common sense. He was a good judge of human nature, and quick to take in the situation in every emergency. A man of deep and tender sympathies, yet he was most firm in his adherence to principle.

This combination of qualities gave him an administrative ability unsurpassed by that of any man I ever knew. He had taken care to have all the departments of his school well manned, and to have the whole establishment thoroughly organized and reduced to the most perfect system. The result was that, though there were so many departments to claim his attention, and so many different interest to be conserved, yet there was no friction or collision of parts in the system. The whole moved on so beautifully and harmoniously as to remind one (it often reminded me) of the facile movements of a thoroughly organized and well drilled army. Under such management, the school could not have been otherwise than prosperous. Nor did it ease to prosper until the tribal relations of the Indians began to be interrupted in regard to their lands.

The Government first buying part of their lands, and afterward giving them the privilege of disposing of their remaining "head rights," - this soon threw the Indians into a state of unrest and confusion which had a detrimental effect upon the school. He kept his school open, however, as long as he could with any profit to the Indians. But when they determined to dispose of their "head rights" and move South, he yielded to the necessity and closed the school. He bought a home two miles east of the town of Westport, Mo., to which he moved in 1858, expecting to spend the rest of his days in retirement, and in such benevolent labors as he might be able to bestow. And while he lived there, and after what may be called the close of his public life, there was no man in this Western country that possessed in a higher degree the confidence and esteem of those who knew him.

As to his death, it is necessary that we premise a few particulars, in order properly to understand the cause and "manner of his taking off." Mr. Johnson was a Southern man, born and reared in the South. His ancestors were Southern, and most of his associates and associations were Southern. Under such circumstances, it was but natural that he should entertain the prevailing sentiments of his people, and sympathize with them in what was called their grievances. Hence it was that in the division of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1844, and in the first Territorial Legislature of Kansas, of which he was a member, and in the United States Congress where he had a seat as a Territorial delegate, and wherever else he was called upon to act in a public capacity, he viewed the various questions that came before him from a Southern standpoint. And he was sincere and conscientious in his positions.

But when our national troubles culminated, and every man had to decide, between Union and secession, Mr. Johnson's patriotism proved superior to all sectional, social and even personal ties, and he took his stand firmly on the side of the Union. I had opportunity to know his real, heartfelt sentiments upon this subject, and I am fully convinced that there was no Union man in the country who was more sincere in the position he had taken, or more conscious of the rectitude of his purpose, than was Thomas Johnson. Yet the reader can easily conceive to what terrible hazards this position exposed him. It was so in the case of hundreds of others, on both sides, in this bushwhacking country.

On the night of the 2d day of January - a bitter cold night - in 1865, after Mr. Johnson and his family were all in their beds, and most of them asleep, a gang of armed men rode up to the front gate and uttered several loud halloos. Mr. Johnson, hearing them, went into the hall, opened the front door, and asked them what was wanted. They said they wanted to be directed the way to Kansas City. He gave them the desired directions. Meantime, some of them dismounted, passed through the gate and approached the house, saying they wanted a drink of water. Mr. Johnson told them where the cistern was at the side of the house where they would find conveniences for drinking and invited them to help themselves. Just then he perceived their evil intent, for they were drawing their pistols and advancing toward him rapidly.

He immediately sprang back into the hall, closed the door, and was in the act of locking it, when they fired at him. Their aim was so well taken that, although the closed door was between him and them, one of the balls passing through the door, must have gone through or very near his heart. He immediately began to sink down, still holding on the knob of the door. His faithful wife, who had been all the while standing near him, caught him in her arms, and as he sank down, she sat upon the floor and placed his head in her lap. He spoke not a word. He only uttered on or two slight groans, and in a very few moments cased to breathe. The assassins continued to shoot into the house, not only in front but on every side. For, by this time, nearly the whole gang had come in and were taking part in the assault. They were, as yet, uncertain whether they had accomplished their object in killing Mr. Johnson; for Mrs. Johnson had not allowed a lamp to be lit, or an audible word to be spoken. The assassins, then changing their tactics, set fire to the house. As soon as Mrs. Johnson saw what they had done, she immediately ran out with a bucket of water, right before them, and put out the fire; then she returned into the house unmolested, except that the bullets from their guns and pistols were whizzing around her! This was repeated. For it was not long before they again set the house on fire at another point; and Mrs. Johnson, with her bucket of water, again faced the assassins, and put out the fire. Worn out and exhausted almost to fainting, Mrs. Johnson finally told them they had killed her husband, and, as they had accomplished what she supposed to be their object, she begged them to cease from their assault upon her defenseless house and her heart-broken family. They soon after left the place. The body of Mr. Johnson was borne to the cemetery of the Indian Mission Sunday School, and was buried, not only beside the departed ones of his own dear family, but in the midst of a multitude of departed Christian Indians, who, through his instrumentality had been brought into Christ's Kingdom and made sons and daughters of God.

Since then his noble wife has been called away, and now rest by his side. Of her it may be said, that, so far as cool self-possession and invincible courage are concerned, the history of the sex furnishes few examples more signal and illustrious of genuine heroism. Thomas Johnson possessed the elements of true greatness. I do not mean the greatness measured by a man's fame which is to often made the standard. Many a man whose name is scarcely known to the public, is more truly great than are many of those whose fame has made the circuit of the world. The former is greatness after the Divine type - consisting in purity of heart and in a life spent in good works. Its duration is eternal. The latter is greatness after the human type. It is ephemeral and will have no existence beyond this fleeting life. Of the former type was the character of the Hon. Thomas Johnson.

Mr. Johnson was married, in 1829, to Miss Sarah T. Davis, of Clarksville, Mo. She was a woman of rare natural endowments, and possessed of the courage of which true heroines as well as heroes are made. Years before her marriage, nearly her entire family had been butchered at Ruttle's stockade, during the Indian war, in which Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, was the leading spirit. The young bride went immediately after her marriage to live among the wild and savage tribe that had been the terror of her girlhood. She became, by the hidden but conquering power of her Christian virtues, well-nigh a queen among the descendants of the wild men who had slaughtered her ancestors.

The children of Thomas and Sarah T. (Davis) Johnson were twelve in number, of whom five died in infancy. Those who still survive, or lived to mature age, are: Alexander S., Land Commissioner of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, Topeka, Kan.; Eliza S. (Mrs. John B. Wornall), Wes[t]port, Jackson Co., Mo., deceased; Laura L. (Mrs. F. A. Waterman, Chicago, Ill.); Andrew Monroe,  Wes[t]port, Mo.; Cora E.  (Mrs. H. W. Fuller, Richmond, Va.); William  M., Clay County, Mo., and Edna (Mrs. W. J. Anderson, Kansas City, Mo.

[The inclusion of this and other entries concerning the missionaries in Kansas editor does not mean that the editor makes a judgment endorsing their work, which is a matter of controversy.]


Reverend Charles Journeycake in 1854 at Age Thirty-Seven
( http://home.swbell.net/gmeador/journey.jpg )

Lenape name  Neshapanecumin or Neshapanacumin, a     prominent minister and leader of the Delaware Nation, was born on 16 December 1817, married Jane Socia/Sosha, and died 3 January 1894. He was a Signer as a Delegate 6 May 1854 Treaty at Washington (Kappler, Treaties, Vol. II, p. 618), a Participant  in the 2 July 1861  Treaty at Leavenworth City, Kansas  (Ibid., p. 823),  a Signer of the 4 July 1866 Treaty at the Delaware Agency, Kansas  as an Assistant Chief (Ibid., p. 942),  a Signer of the 8 April 1867 Treaty at Washington as the Principal Chief [What Treaty is this? Source?] Charles Journeycake was ordained a pastor of a church in Indian territory (Oklahoma) in 1872. (Farley, 1)  Sam Berrett@aol.com says that there is considerable information about him at the Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives in Tennessee. He says that Charles was the first Delaware baptized in the State of Kansas and that his mother, Sally, was a very fervent Christian. Among his other accomplishments, he translated the four gospels of the Bible into Delaware. One of "some prominent men among the Delaware Indians in what is now Leavenworth County. [KS] in 1844" (Remsburg*, p.  ) All treaties were between the Delaware Tribe/Nation and the United States. He was perhaps the Principal Chief from 1865 to 1872. In 1877 he succeeded James Conner as the Principal Chief of the Delaware. He was the last Chief of the Delaware Nation. Charles Journeycake died 3 January 1894. (Undocumented) (Johnnycake, Jonneycake, and Johneycake, etc.) Lenape name Neshepanahcumin  was born 16 December 1817 around the Upper Sandusky in Ohio and he died in Allewe, Indian Territory 3 January 1894.  Charles Ketchum had Delaware Registration No. 933.
     He married Jane Sosha  in 1837.  She was born February 1821 and died 13 January 1903.  (Jackie Ernst jernst@yahoo.com )* The father of Charles Journeycake, according to Rev. S. M. Mitchell, was a "full-blooded Indian" who married Sally (Castleman) Journeycake. Her parents were an Indian from a "Delaware settlement, on the upper Sandusky [Ohio]... who had traded much with the white people, and who married a white woman by the name of Castleman [emphasis added]. " Sally spoke English and several Indian dialects and was an expert interpreter. She was born about 1797 and died in the Indian Territory [present Oklahoma] on 6 February 1873. Charles Journeycake was born those those parents on 16 December 1817. (S. M. Mitchell, The Indian Chief, Journeycake. (Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1895, p. 20.) Mitchell describes Charles's early life as follows:

In 1827 we find them still in Ohio, but making preparation for their removal to the West. A this time a fatal disease broke out among their horses, and all died except two, belonging to Mr. Journeycake...Late in 1827, Mr. Journeycake took his family some fifty miles west to spend the winter with the Shawnees, and still later penetrated twenty miles farther into the dense forest for a winter's hunt. While in this winter retreat his wife, Mrs. Sally Journeycake, the interpreter, was taken violently ill...[Here follows a story of her conversion to Christianity] [p. 22] The son, Charles, was no ten years old. In 1828 the long, slow march began from Sandusky to the new reservation away to the bank of the Missouri River...Sally Journeycake alone of all that company of dusky exiles knew what it was like to trust in the Christian's God.  Around their campsites the Indians would dance their war [p. 23] dances or engage in the wild orgies [Come on now! Editor] of their native life, but she alone stood aloof from all their revelries...Her mother-eye could not fail to see that her son Charles was deeply impressed by her Christian deportment and ardent hopes were inspired in her heart...This journey to the West seems to have taken about a year. There was a tarrying of a part, if not all, of the band for a short time in Indiana on White River, and another stop, and probably an encampment for the winter, in Southwest Missouri. So the Delawares arrived at their Kansas destination in the spring of 1829. (Ibid., pp. 22-24)

Sally (Castleman) Journeycake, Mother of Charles Journeycake (1797-1873)


An incident that took place upon their arrival at the Kansas River illustrates the courageous spirit of Chief Journeycake, and at the same time affords a view of that providence which was preparing for him the career which has distinguished him as a man. On reaching the spot where they were to cross the Kansas River, it was found greatly swollen by recent rains. It was necessary to take a number of horses across the river by causing them to swim. The young brave, then less than [p. 26] twelve years old, mounted the leader and fearlessly plunged into the swollen river.] Reaching the opposite bank in safety, he says, "I noticed a man with a white hat, who proved to be a white man, looking at me" The stranger approached the young rider and addressed him kindly in the few Indian words he had already learned. This stranger was I. D. Blanchard who, with the noted missionary to the Indians, Isaac McCoy, was there already to start a mission among the Delawares and related tribes in this new Indian settlement about forming. This was the beginning of a friendship often appreciatively mentioned by Mr. Journeycake in after years. His mother, Mrs. Sally Journeycake, in 18931, became the first interpreter for the missionaries in the Territory of Kansas...(Ibid, p.p. 25-26)

Arrangements were made at once upon their arrival in 1829, to begin mission work on their Kansas Reservations. As might be expected, progress at first was very slow. I have found no record of organized mission work earlier than 1833 when it appears that the Baptist General Convention had an established mission there. In the meantime, Charles Journeycake fully accepted Christ, [p. 28] and in 1833, was baptized by a missionary by the name of Likins. He [Journeycake] was the first Delaware baptized in the present century and, except his mother, the only Christian of his tribe. In 1835, his father being also converted, father and mother were baptized. This was the beginning and nucleus of a Baptist church among the Delaware indians...It seems highly probable that Charles Journeycake    was the first person baptized in what is now the State of Kansas... Mr. Journeycake began preaching when still a young man. He preached in his own language and in the Shawnee, Wyandotte, Seneca, and Ottawa dialects. He was a great traveler, ranging over wide areas of the vast plains   of the West, attending Indian councils, and engaging in his favorite pastime of hunting. There is evidence that he went everywhere preaching the gospel...His friends wish him to be ordained to the ministry in these early days in Kansas; but he seems to have had no special ambition for its honors. (Ibid., pp. 28-30)

In 1837 [May 1838, p.85], at the age of twenty, Mr. Journeycake was married to Jane Sosha [Socia], a Delaware maid about sixteen years of age. Of her family little more can be learned than that she was born in February, 1821[p. 7]...Her father, Sylvester Sosha, was a Frenchman, her mother a Delaware Indian. [p. 85] There were eight daughters and two sons who died in early childhood. The daughters were all married, were all converted, and became members of the Baptist church, and five of them are yet living [in 1890]. Some of them were educated in our Baptist institution at Granville, Ohio, and all are women of culture, and efficient workers in the church. ..It is certain that Mr. Journeycake and his family must have been the important factors in the religious life of the Delawares during that period, for when, after their removal to the Indian Territory, they organized the Delaware Baptist Church, on Lightning Creek, of eleven constituent members, seven were members of his family, viz., himself and wife, his mother, and four daughters. (Ibid., pp. 32-33) Jane Sosha Journeycake died at her home at Al-lu-we, Indian Territory January 13, . lacking one month of seventy-two years of age. [p. 85]. The inscription on her tombstone reads, "None knew her but to love her." Charles Journeycake died on 3 January 1894. (Ibid., p. 7)
In 1854 Mr. Journeycake made his first visit to Washington, when he was thirty-seven years of age. It was one year prior to his becoming chief of the Wolf Clan, and seven years before he became principal chief. It was at this time that "the influx of white settlers into Kansas was so great that became evident that the Indian reservations there could not be kept intact, and the Delawares made  a large cession of their lands to the United States, to be restored to the public domain." It was doubtless about this treaty of cession that he made the trip to Washington. It was the beginning of the leading part borne by him in the affairs of his tribe with the government, which continued till the end of his life. He visited the capital not less than twenty-four times in the interest of his people, usually remaining for weeks, and conferring with leading me  in Congress and in the several departments, who he enlisted in behalf of the interests of which he was in charge, and whose friendship he won and retained. [Ibid., p. 65]

In 1855 Mr. Journeycake was chosen one of the chiefs of his tribe--chief of the Wolf Clan...In 1861 Mr. Journeycake became the principal chief of his tribe; so that he stood in that relation during the trying scenes of the war and the incidents that led up to the abandonment of their valuable homes and their tribal government, and the removal again to a new and un tried country. Of his qualifications for that position we can best judge from the knowledge gained of him later in life. But there was in his make-up undoubted indications that he was a born leader. His whole life was distinguished [p. 45]for courage and undaunted bravery. These were combined with a mildness and kindness of disposition that made him one to be trusted and leaned upon. He was naturally of a very reticent disposition, and always spoke with great deliberation, and his influence over his people was very great. Even after the office of chief had ceased, he was still and to the very last the respected adviser in all matters of moment. His home was [p. 48] the meeting-place for consultation, and his hospitality was ungrudging and without stint. (Ibid., pp. 45-49)

[On 23 September 1872] a council convened for the ordination of Charles Journeycake. Fifty-five years of age and abundant in labors. it was fitting that he should be set apart to the gospel ministry and as pastor of the Delaware Baptist Church. Rev. J. G. Pratt, from the old mission  in Kansas, Rev. J. B. Jones, of Tahlequah, long a missionary to the Cherokees, and Rev. G. J. Johnson, then of St. Louis, Mo., were present to conduct the services. [The Rev. Johnson of him said, "At the time I first met him he was about fifty years old, [p. 55], slightly gray, and showing age--tall in stature, erect, and of thoughtful, dignified mien. His looks did not misrepresent him. He was intelligent, even well read, ballasted with excellent common sense and good judgment...His residence was a neat frame structure, pleasantly situated in an ample lawn, amid abundant shrubbery and shade, and in the center of a vast tract of land that he regarded as his own, and on which were feeding great herds of his own cattle...An ample library of the best books, the latest periodicals, and the musical instruments that were conspicuous, at once assured you that you were in the abode of intelligence and culture. (Ibid., pp. 55-57)                                                                                                           

    The House of Charles Journeycake

Charles Journeycake

Our informant Jackie Ernst informs that, "I am Lenape (Delaware), Reg. #1010. My great gramma, Carrie Mae (Everett) Bratcher (Pa-Tah-Ta-Ace) was adopted by the Chief when she  was left an orphan at a young age. My gr-gramma in not mentioned in any book, as it was Delaware custom for the lead clan to take in orphans; it wasn't a legal situation that needed to involve the white folks. She was eventually raised by a cousin once he got old enough to care for her....Matilda Journeycake was buried in our Bratcher Cemetery, which was relocated to Nowata Reinternment Cemetery. (Oklahoma) Three Secondine's were buried in the Bratcher C[emetery]... and reinterred at Nowata. Many Journeycake's are buried in the Armstrong Cemetery, also reinterred at Nowata, including Nancy Johney Cake."

[We will add additional data on Charles Journeycake and his family. If you are an ancestor and would like to add a family group sheet or a Descendancy chart for him, we will do so. Editor]

His obituary contained in Ruby Cranor, Some Old Delaware Obituaries, p. 40:

Chief Charles Journeycake famous Delaware leader and preacher was the last official chief of the Delaware tribe. (Although there is no obituary on record for him, we know he died in 1894 and was buried in the Armstrong Cemetery south of Nowata and then when the Oologah Dam was built the entire cemetery with several others that were in the path of the lake were moved to the south edge of the Nowata Cemetery.

Chief Charles Journeycake signed the treaty of the Delaware-Cherokee agreement of 1867 and led his people to their new homes in the Indian Territory in 1868. He organized the Baptist church in Alluwee in 1871 and was instrumental in building a number of other churches in this locality including the very first church in this vicinity, the of=d Silver Lake Baptist Church just south of town. He had completed a hymn book in the Delaware tongue and in his later life relayed to his successor in his ministry, Reverend S. H. Mitchell, the events of his life and the story of his people.

He was the father of thirteen children, eight daughters living to adulthood/Among these were Mrs. J. H. (Nannie) Bartles founders of Bartlesville, and Mrs. Mary E. Armstrong who became one of the community's most prominent women, built and occupied the residence on Johnstone Avenue which is now the YMCA...Most of Chief Journeycake's daughters attended the Baptists school at Granville, Ohio and the Female seminar at Tahlequah.

Other than the two daughters mentioned above, Chief Journeycake left three other daughters: Mrs. J. C. Emeline) Campbell, Mrs. Charles W. (Adeline) Merritt. and Mrs. Anna E. Armstrong; at least 25 grandchildren and a host of friends and relatives. He was preceded in death by his wife, Jane Socia Journeycake, two daughters, Rachel Ann Turner and Lucy Jane Armstrong; 3 infant daughters, 2 infant sons; and 14 grandchildren.

JOURNEYCAKE, Isaac - Data to be added. Isaac Journeycake was married to Nancy Ketchum, Lenape name Aupahmundaqua or Aquamdageockwe. Researcher Vickie Wilkins

JOURNEYCAKE, Nannie M.--She was born 28 August 1843, the daughter of Chief Charles Journeycake and Jane Socia. Nannie married first on 2 March 1860 at the Delaware Baptist Mission Lucius Bolles Pratt, the son of Reverend John Gill Pratt and Olivia Evans. Their children were Lavonia (Nonie) I. Pratt who was No. 25 on the 1862 Allotment List, Ella May Pratt,  and Ida Florence (Pratt) Paul. These three daughters, and their mother Nannie M. Pratt, were four of  the five persons who were added to the Delaware Tribe of Indian Roll in 1951.  After the death of Lucius Bolles Pratt, Nannie married Jacob H. Bartles for who Bartlesville, Oklahoma was named. Researchers: Thomas Hahn and Vickie Wilkins.

KETCHUM, Betsy Wilaquenaho (See WILAQUENAHO, Betsy.)  Wilaquenaho  has been associated with the Ketchum name. We  have no hard evidence of whether or not she was a family member, was she adopted by the Ketchum family, or did she adopt the Ketchum name for some other reason? We are  including her name here in the index for the convenience of those who have seen a record listing her name as Ketchum with no further explanation. Researchers and Descendants: Thomas Hahn and Vickie Wilkins.

KETCHUM, Charles - (From "Methodist Missions Among the Indians in Kansas, Kansas State Historical Society" Historical Collections, Vol. IX, 1905-1905, p. 206):

A prominent man among the Delawares was Charles Ketchum, for many years a preacher in the Methodist church. In appearance he was large and portly, of manly appearance and address. He was illiterate, but a man of good intellect and a fluent talker. When the church divided, in 1845, he adhered to the Northern branch, built a church himself, and kept the remnant of the flock together (Outposts of Zion, p. 296.) He was settled on a good farm and received appointments from the conference regularly. He entered the ministry in 1850 and was a regular member of the Kansas conference of the Methodist Episcopal church. Rev. Joab Spencer writes: Charles and James Ketchum have both interpreted for me. Charles interpreted a sermon for me at a Delaware camp-meeting that resulted in from fifteen to twenty conversions. He was a notable Christian character, such as Bluejacket." Charles Ketchum died on the Delaware reserve, July 20, 1860, aged forty-nine years.

KETCHUM, Captain - There has been considerable discussion about the "true" name. role, and position of Capt. Ketchum. particularly as to whether or not his name included Jack of John. Deborah Nichols-Ledermann has this to say about the matter:

1. His name was Capt. Ketchum and he had no Christian name such as John or Jack. His Lenape name was Tawhelalen, as stated in the treaties he signed. Rodney Staab, Fay Arellano, and I all agreed on this as being true.
2. John Ketchum, who died in Kansas about the same time as Capt. Ketchum, was a totally different person. I told this to Fay Arellano, who found his military record and agreed was a much younger man. I have met a man from Kansas whose property once belonged to John Ketchum. John Ketchum and his wife were buried there on his land. Capt. Ketchum is buried at White Church. This was also the John Ketchum who accompanied the Delaware to Washington for a treaty and visited his relatives in Indiana. Fay Arellano, Rodney Staab, and I all agreed this was not Capt. Ketchum.
3. Tahleockwe was the Lenape name for Melinda Wilcoxen. Rodney Staab told me that Pearl Morgan made a mistake in his interview notes and attributed the name to Capt. Ketchum. I have seen her Delaware name as Tweleniqud in one newspaper source, but I agree with Rodney [Staab] that it was his phonetic version of Melinda's name. The "-kwe" or the "qud" is a phonetic version of "qua." the Lenape for "woman." Capt. Ketchum was certainly not named anything that ended with woman.  (Deborah Nichols-Ledermann)

KETCHUM, Elizabeth--See Mekinges.

KETCHUM, George - In an interview by Field Worker J. R. Carselowy, on 9 June 1937, at Vinita, Oklahoma, Sol C. Ketchum, son of George Ketchum, said of his grandfather, George Ketchum. "He also lived on the Delaware Reservation in Pennsylvania, but died among the Delawares on the Caney River near Bartlesville, at the age of 100 years." The following item on the Ketchum Family was taken from The History of Craig County: Its People and Places, Vol. I, pp. 439-440. The publishing data are not known at this time. The article is entitled "Ketchum Family," F353:

George Ketchum was born in 1787. About 1807 he married a woman by the name of Lucy (last name unknown). Lucy and George Ketchum were the parents of five children: Lewis, born 1808, died 1904; Elizabeth, born 1810, died 1866; Charles, born 1811, died 1860;  Mary, born 1814, died 1872; Jacob, born 1816, died 1866.

 After Lucy Ketchum's death, Gorge married a woman named Sarah A. To this union three children were born: James Ketchum, born 1818, died 1890; William Riley Ketchum, born 1827, died 1880; and David B., born 1831. The Ketchums were full blood Delaware Indians, and we know that James, the sixth child of George Ketchum was born in Indiana, but when Ketchum led the Delaware tribesmen to Indian Territory [present Oklahoma], they came from Kansas. After coming to Indian Territory, as the Ketchum children grew up and married they scattered, and settled in various parts of the Cherokee Nation.
Lewis, at age 59 years, and James, age 49 years settled along the Grand River. James Ketchum was an outstanding leader of his tribesmen. He was a Methodist preacher known for his fine character and he was a brilliant orator in the Delaware language and in English. Rev, Ketchum was a man of considerable means when he came to this country. He purchased a large two-story brick mansion that had been built by Johnson and Martin Thompson before the Civil War. The bricks that the houses were built from were made by Thompson's black slaves. There were two large brick homes belonging to each of the Thompson brothers, one on the south side, one on the north side of Grand River. The Ketchums settled in this location, about 3 miles south of present day Ketchum, one mile south of old Ketchum.

Lewis Ketchum was married to Elizabeth Ziegles. To thus union eleven children were born: John born 1843, died 899;  Charles, [p. 439]  born 1845, died 1868; Mary, born 1847, died 1881; Jane O., born 1850, died 1881; Barbara, born 1852, died 1894; Simon, born 1855, died 1894; Silas, born 1857,  1901; Lucinda, born 1858, died 1869 at the age of 18 years old; Solomon "Sol", born 1860, do not have date of death, but he is buried in the Lewis Ketchum family burial plot, 4 miles west and 1 1/2 miles north of Ketchum. Hatty Ann born in 1868, died in 1869. Lewis Ketchum started his family when he was 35 years old, but made up for lost time. He was 60 years old when his last child was born.

James Ketchum married a full blood Delaware woman by the name of Loa Tai O Qua, who was born in 1823. They had five children: Hester Ann, born 1849, died in 1942 at age of 93;  Virginia A., born 1852, died1898; Mary E., born 1855, died at age 18; Thomas E., born 1856, died 1928; and Amanda Ketchum, born 1859, died 1872, age 13 years. After Loa Tai Oqua's death, Rev. James Ketchum married Elizabeth Swannock Connor, born 1827 (died 1925). Elizabeth had one son by a former marriage to Alexander Connor [Delaware?]. James   and Elizabeth Ketchum, were the parents of four children: Casandra , born 1862, died 1863 at age 7 year; James, Jr., born 1866, died in 1886 at age 20 years; (both are buried at Ketchum Cemetery); Jane Ann Ketchum, born 1870, died 1947; and Lucinda, named after Lewis Ketchum's daughter who died five years preceding her birth in 1872, died 1947.

James and Lewis were half brothers, but they were close. Lewis was 10 years older than James, and between the two of them they had 21 children to carry on the Ketchum name. James Ketchum and his son-in-law, T. Wyman Thompson, husband of Jane Ann, were instrumental in establishing the first post office  at Ketchum, which was named for James Ketchum.

                                         "Ketchum, James and Lewis Children," F534

      Jane Ann Ketchum, eight child of Rev. James and Elizabeth Ketchum was born in 1870. She married T. Wyman. They lived in the brick mansion built by Martin Thompson (thought to be no relation of T. Wyman Thompson) on the South side of the Grand River. T. Wyman and Jane Ann Ketchum were the parents of Clara Ann Thompson, born in 1888; George Lee Thompson, born in 1862 and died 1960; and James C. Thompson, born in 1892.
     Lucinda Ketchum, youngest daughter of James and Elizabeth Ketchum, married W. H. Ward on September 19, 1889. To this union five children were born, they were: Connie A. Ward, born in 1889 [?]; Elizabeth and Lisa M. Ward born in 1895; Grace Ward in 1896 and died in infancy, and Jananna [?--a nickname for Jane Ann?] Ward; (Nowlica [?] Ward born in 1899.      W. H., often referred to as H. Ward and Lucinda lived in the brick manor on the north side of Grand River. In 1904 a tornado devastated the country as it traveled along Grand River. It almost cleaned the country of houses and several lives were taken. It ripped through the brick mansion and the Wards thought it best not to try to rebuild so they sold the brick to anyone who wanted them. Several of the houses throughout the area were built using brick from the mansion. One was for Elizabeth Ketchum, another was the brick bungalow built by Henry and Stella E. (Careslowry) Crouch, six miles west of Ketchum.
     Ketchum was not immune to outlaws and rough characters and T. Wyman Thompson and his son George acted as lawmen for the area. T. Wyman and his brother Riley Thompson were both U.S. Marshalls. T. Wyman had a sister named Belle who married Jane Ketchum. [There is something wrong with the text here. I am checking. Editor] Thompson's half-brother, Thomas E. "Tom"  Ketchum. Tom and Belle (Thompson) Ketchum had four children: Eva Ketchum who married Henry Ward Trout; Willie Ketchum; Wyman Ketchum; and Lucy Ketchum who married O. L. "Res" Epperson.
     An interesting finding about one of Lewis and Elizabeth Ketchum's sons, Sol. Solaman [Solomon]  C. "Sol" (born 1860) was at one time Champion Indian Boxer of the United States. He was also sparring partner to John L. Sullivan, heavyweight boxing champion of the world from 1889 to 1892. Sol Ketchum married Anna Couch and they were the parents of Charlie, Jim, Mavis, and Bruce Ketchum. They lived four miles west and one and one-half miles north of Ketchum.
     When the county road was being built by his home, plans were to build the road straight through., thus Sol would have to move his home but Sol had different ideas. He balked. As a niece described him as a wiry little man, she said, "He reminded me of a bantam rooster getting ready to jump." Needless to say the road curved to the west around the yard fence. As you approach the home it appears to be sitting in the middle of the road. It is the only curve in that road for miles.
(The article continues with the "Grandchildren of T. Wyman and Jane Ketchum Thompson" which in not contained herein.)

George Ketchum Descendancy Chart from The History of Craig County, pp. 185-186:
1. George Ketchum, born 1787, married 1. Lucy, married 2. Sara H.
    2. Lewis Ketchum, born 1808, died 1904, married 1. _________, married 2. Elizabeth Zeigles
        3. John W. Ketchum, born 1843, died 1899
        3. Charles Ketchum, born 1845, died 1868
        3. Samuel Ketchum, died September 1870
        3. Mary L. Ketchum, born 1847, died 1881
        3. Jane O. Ketchum, born 1850, died 1881
        3. Barbara Ketchum, born 1852, died1894
        3. Simon W. Ketchum, born 1855, died 1894
        3. Lucinda Ketchum, born 1858, died 1876
        3. Solomon C. Ketchum, born 1860
        3. Hatty Ann Ketchum, born 1868, died 1869
    2. Elizabeth Ketchum, born 1810, married ________ Rains
        3. Mary Rains, born 1832
    2. Charles Ketchum, born 1811, died1860, married Nancy Journeycake
        3. Eliza Ketchum, born 1840, died 1898
        3. Charles Ketchum, born 1845
        3. Abraham W. Ketchum, born 1846, died 1920 at Dewey, Oklahoma
        3. Katherine Ketchum, born 1845, married William Long
     2. ______ Ketchum, married a Muncie, _____ Lewis
        3. Thomas Lewis, born 1845
    2. Mary Ketchum, born 1814, died 1872, married a Muncie, _____ Wilson
        3. Adam Wilson, born 1845, died 1901
    2. Jacob Ketchum, born 1816, died 1866, married Nancy A. John
        3. Elizabeth Ketchum, born 1846
        Mary Jane Ketchum, born 1846, buried in the Buffalo Cemetery
        3. Malinda Ketchum, born 1850, died early
        3. Julia Ann, born 1852
        3. Olive Ann, born 185?, died early
        3. Thomas Coke Ketchum, born 1859, died 1888, buried in the Ball Cemetery
        3. John Watson Ketchum, born 1861
        3. Nancy S. Ketchum, born 1859, died 1860
    2. James Ketchum, born 1818, grave marker 1816-1880, married 1. Loataooqua, born 1823, married 2.
        Elizabeth (Swannock) Connor, born 1827, died 1925
        3. Hester Ann Ketchum, born 1849, died 1942
        3. Virginia SA.? Ketchum, born 1852, died 1898
        3. Mary E. Ketchum, born 1855, died 1873
        3. Thomas E. Ketchum, born 1856, died 1928
        3. Amanda Ketchum, born 1859, died 1872
        3. Casandra Ketchum, born 1862, died 1869
        3. James Ketchum, Junior, born 1866, died 1886
        3. Jane Ann Ketchum, born 1867
        3. Lucinda Ketchum, born 1871
    2. William Riley Ketchum, born 1827, died 1880, married Aupheelequa (Nancy) , born 1811, died 1881
        3. Nancy Ketchum, born 1849
        3. Joel Ketchum, born 1852, died 1872
        3. Carolina Ketchum, born 1854
        3. Absolom Ketchum, born 1856
        3. Henry Clay Ketchum, born 1859 

KETCHUM, John (or Jack) -- See the discussion about John Ketchum and Captain Ketchum under the latter's entry above. Deborah Nichols-Ledermann had this to say about John (or Jack) Ketchum

John Ketchum, who died in Kansas about the same time as Capt. Ketchum, was a totally different person. I told this to Fay Arellano, who found his military record and agreed was a much younger man. I have met a man from Kansas City whose property once belonged to John Ketchum. John Ketchum and his wife were buried on his land. Capt. Ketchum is buried at White Church. This was also the John Ketchum who accompanied the Delaware to Washington for a treaty and visited his relatives in Indiana. Fay Arellano, Rodney Staab, and I all agreed this was not Capt. Ketchum.

KETCHUM, Louis or Lewis -- Louis Ketchum was born 1808 near Sandusky, Ohio. (1862 census and tombstone data from James Tyler and Alice T. Timmons, Our People and Where They Rest n.p., 1969), p. 54 covering the Ketchum Cemetery) According to the  1875 Kansas State Census, Wyandotte County Quindaro Township, Family No. 224 , he was born in Indiana. His name is also used and cited as Lewis. He died on 28 March 1904 and was buried in the  privately-owned Ketchum Cemetery that he established in Craig County, Indian Territory (SE-NE-NE of Section 10, Township 24, Range 20). His father was George Ketchum, Lenape name Kakeewha. His mother was Nancy, family name not known.

Photograph of Lewis/Louis Ketchum from the Vinita (Oklahoma) Indian Chieftain, 1 April 1904. We obtained this image from the Craig County, Oklahoma Genealogical Society, which had made a copy of the photo from a microfiche from the Vinita, Oklahoma Public Library.

Solomon Ketch, had this to say about his father, Lewis Ketchum,  in a 9 June 1937 at Vinita, Oklahoma by Field Worker J. R. Carselowy:

My father was born in 1808 on the Delaware Reservation in  Ohio, near Sandusky. While my father was growing up, he lived near Sandusky, Ohio; from there to White River, near Springfield, Missouri; and from there to Wyandotte [County]. Kansas. My father lived to be 98 [?] years old, and died on his allotment ten miles southeast of Vinita, Craig County, in 1904.

My father, a three-quarter blood Delaware Indian, could talk very little English in his younger days, and talked brokenly up to the time of his death. I believe that he was the greatest hunter and trapper that the United States has ever produced. He was very venturesome in his young days and started out selling furs to the famous Choteau brothers at St. Louis when he was a mere boy.
He began learning the use of traps and guns early in the nineteenth century, and made it his life's study. His most valuable fur was the beaver, and he made a specialty of trapping beavers.

     The Chateaus later established a trading post at West Port, Missouri, about six miles south of the present site of Salina, Oklahoma, where a stone marker was recently placed commemorating the establishment of the first trading post in the Indian Territory

Nothing could suit my father more than the exploring of new territory. and all alone he followed the trading posts down into Indian Territory long before he came here to settle years afterward. Mustering a herd of five pack ponies at Salina, he set out to the southwest, exploring all the small rivers and streams, and finally winding up at Fort Worth, Texas, but finding very few beaver. He had just about made up his mind that he was too far south for this kind of game when the unexpected happened.

It was about 1848 and General Winfield Scott with a large army of government soldiers. was marching from the north, down the "Old Military Trail" into Mexico, where the United States was at war with Mexico. They captured my father and against his protest made a government scout of him and sent him on ahead of the army as one of the government scouts. He remained with them five days. bit on the night of the fifth day out he slipped away and came back to where the Grand River empties into the Arkansas. It was here he decoded to find out where the big river went, and he set out to the northwest, following the Arkansas River, and trapping as he went.

On his trip to the northwest, my father encountered many wild tribes of Indians. He tried to evade them. They would take after him in great droves but being armed with a good rifle my y father said they quit chasing him after he had shot one or two of them, as they were armed with only bows and arrows.

Others of the tribes tried to be friendly. but were very treacherous and mean.  He stayed among them for nearly two years, and learned to talk some of their languages. One tribe offered to bet him a pony that he could not throw their champion wrestler, whom they called "the devil.:" He bet them and threw the devil, and won their pony. They then wanted to bet him three ponies that he could not out-run their champion foot racer. "How far?" asked Father. "Three miles," replied the Indians. "Horses can't run that far. I run two hundred yards - five horses," my father told them, and bet them, and [they] lost their five ponies

This made they so mad that they tried to slip up on him, that night and kill him, but he saw they and slipped away, and went to a government post several miles away and reported the loss of his guns, traps, and furs. The soldiers went with him the next day and got his things, and told him that he had better get out of there as those were bad Indians and would kill anyone, not a member of their tribe. They sent soldiers to accompany  my father out of the danger zone. He went back to Wyandotte, Kansas, where he organized a company of  went Delawares and went back to where he had been, thinking with twenty men armed with rifles, the whole Indian tribe could be whipped.

The Indians seemed to be friendly when they got back and my father and his party trapped for some time and entered into all kinds of jests with the Indian tribes. They measured their great men by acts of bravery, and it was possibly this that brought on more trouble with the Indians. To beat them at their own game my father slipped up on a buffalo while it was asleep, and cut the buffalo's tail off. He showed the Indians the tail as evidence that he had performed the feat. They seemed to be very jealous of this feat. and that night they attacked my father's camp and bushwhacked and killed every man in  his party. He escaped by crawling on his stomach until he was out of their reach and the next day made his way back to West Port, Kansas, where the Choteau's were still located, and retired to a farm in Wyandotte, Kansas, where he lived until 1880.

In 1880, he went before the National Council at Talequah and paid $287.00 per head for an equal right with the Cherokees, and the following year, in 1881, he settled on a farm ten miles southeast of Vinita, near the town of Ketchum, where two of his brothers were living. They were James and George Ketchum, and it   was from these three brothers that the town of Ketchum received its name.

When my father was hunting and trapping in the west he kept three buffalo robes with him, with which he made his bed at night, and he said that no matter how cold the weather, he could keep warm.

When he settled in Craig County, then Delaware District, Indian Territory, there was plenty of game, and he kept right on hunting. His principal meat while hunting in the west was buffalo, but since moving to the Territory he had to content himself with deer, turkey, prairie chicken and the smaller game. However, he said that he had tasted every kind of meat there was, but the worst meat he ever tried was wolf. As amusement for his old days he got himself a pack of fox hounds and chased deer,, fox, and wolves. He loved the music that a pack of dogs made and usually kept one small dog with a fine voice that he said was his "tenor" singer.

To catch a deer quickly, he got himself two big wolf hounds (greyhounds). These two dogs would catch the deer on short run, until the old hunter and his fox hounds caught up, when the deer would either be shot or the dogs would kill him.

My father had an old mule, that he rode during his last hunting days, that could swim any stream and if the deer plunged into the river and swam across, his dogs and the old mule with its rider would plunger right after him. Like the hounds, he would clean out of country to get a deer and carry the deer back behind his saddle

On the day he died, he made a date with Dr. B. F. Fortner, of Vinita, to go squirrel hunting with him as soon as he got well. He is now sleeping in the happy hunting ground where there is no wild tribe to disturb him. He is buried on the old homestead where he settled in 1881, ten miles southeast of Vinita. My father lived to be 96 years old.... in 1904. (The interview was  a part of the Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma.)

According to an affidavit on 27 January 1900 at Vinita, Oklahoma by Sarah Ann MacCamish of Vinita, Indian Territory,  age 58 [born ca.1842], Lewis married first  Lucy French [an Indian] about 1837. She died  about 1855 near White Church [present Kansas City], Wyandotte County, Kansas and was buried in the White Church Cemetery at that place. She states further that their children were Samuel Ketchum, John Ketchum, and Charles Ketchum:
1. Samuel Ketchum [died Sep. 1870 and was buried in the White Church Cemetery in present Kansas City, Kansas].
2. John Ketchum [was born 1843, died 1892, and was buried in Little Rock, Arkansas].
3. Charles W. Ketchum [was born 1845 and died 1868].Charles had been in Co. E, 15th Regiment of the Kansas Calvary.
Sol Ketchum and O. D. Neville witnessed the affidavit.

Louis Ketchum's married second Elizabeth Zeigler, daughter of Phillip Zeigler and Elizabeth (Betsy) Taylor. (See Taylor, Elizabeth (Betsey/Betsy). Elizabeth Zeigler Ketchum was born in November 1834, died in 1913, and was buried in the same cemetery as Lewis, in Craig County, Oklahoma. Both Lewis and Betsy and their children appear in the Census of the Delaware Tribe of Indians within the Delaware Agency (present Kansas) on 15 February 1862 and on the List of Delaware  Indians Who Elected to Dissolve Their Tribal Relations and Become Citizens of the United States Under Treaty of July 4, 1866 with  the following 15 December 1862 Allotment Numbers. The first age cited is that under the 1862 Census and the second age cited is that of in the 1866 listing of Delaware Who Elected to Remain in Kansas: Lewis Ketchum is shown as #349/1862 Allotment #155, age 50/52; 1898 Dawes Roll #32529, Cherokee 1904 Census #10429 and his wife Elizabeth Ziegler as #350/156 age 28/31; 1898 Dawes Roll #32530, Census #10849:
1. John W. Ketchum #351/47, age 19/24) [Note that John is actually the son of Lewis Ketchum and Lucy French in Lewis Ketchum's first marriage.]
2. Mary L. Ketchum #352/157, age 14/20
3. Jane  Ketchum #353/158, age 12/17
4. Barbara Ketchum
#354/159 age 10/16
5. Simon Ketchum #355/160, age 8/12
6. Silas Ketchum #356/161, age 6/10
7. Lucinda Ketchum #357/162, age 4/8
8. Solomon Ketchum #358/163, age 2/5.
Two of the children survived him at his death in 1904. Lewis and Elizabeth were married until his death. Whereupon Elizabeth claimed his Indian allotment. They were both buried at the private cemetery (the Ketchum Cemetery) at their allotment.

A Family Group Record for Lewis Ketchum and Elizabeth Zeigler , gives the following as their children:
1. #157 Mary Louise Ketchum, born 1846-1848, in Kansas [1875 Kansas State Census, Wyandotte County, Quindaro Township, Family 224], died 1 April 1928, married Joseph Thatcher, daughter Sarah Elizabeth Ketchum.  
2. #158 Jane Ketchum, born 1849-1850 [although William Connelley's 1903 copy of White Church tombstone inscriptions, in the Kansas State Historical Society Archives, gives the birth as 21 June 1844)] in Kansas. [Ibid.]. She married 18 Oct. 1877 at her father's house, Robert O. Donnell (Marriage Record, p. 427, Probate Court, Wyandotte County, Kansas Court House). He was born 1830 and died 1909.  She died 8 September 1881, two children-Louis O'Donnell and Mary Ellen O'Donnell. Mary Ellen married an unknown Busey whose son Delmar Lloyd Busey married Virginia Arnett.
3. #354 Barbara E. Ketchum, born 1850-1852, in Kansas.  [1875 Kansas Census). She married 29 March 1872 at her father's house, John K. Evans. [Marriage records, Vol. 2, p. 410), Probate Court, Wyandotte Co., Court House, Kansas City, KS]. Barbara died January 1894. They had two children: Elizabeth Evans and John K. Evans, Jr.
4. #355 Simon W. Ketchum, born [27 February] 1855 in Kansas. [187 Kansas Census] He died 2 March 1894. Simon  married 5 October 1879 Emmaline Turner (born 26 November 1858, died 13 December 1948), five children: Louis E. Ketchum, Prudence Ketchum, Maude Ketchum, Samuel Ketchum, and Olive Elizabeth Ketchum. 
5. #161 Silas Ketchum, born 1 Dec. 1857, in Kansas [1875 Kansas Census], died 2 December 1901. [Tyler and Timmons, Our People and Where They Rest. p. 54], married Katie Long. [Marriage Records, vol. 2, p. 480, Probate Court, Wyandotte County] His birth date also appears as 12 January 1857. He died 2 December 1901, married Cora Neville, four children: Myrtle Ketchum, George Ketchum, Samuel Ketchum, and Frank Ketchum.  
6. Lucinda M. Ketchum, born Jan. 1859  in Kansas [1875 Kansas Census], died 3 August 1877 [Probate Court Cases, Vol. A, Case No. 697, Probate Court, Wyandotte County. She apparently was unmarried with no children.
7. #163 Solomon Ketchum, born 1860-1862, in Kansas [1875 Kansas Census]. He is also reported  as having been born 27 Jan. 1861. Solomon died 2 December 1901, married Cora Neville, four children: Myrtle Ketchum, George Ketchum, Samuel Ketchum, and Frank Ketchum. 
8. John W. Ketchum, born 1843 [Tombstone Marker at White Church Christian Church Cemetery, Kansas City Kansas]. But here again, John is actually the son of Lewis Ketchum and his first wife, Lucy French.]
9. [Missing] born April 1868, died 14 July 1869. [Ibid.]

In another listing of the children of Lewis and Elizabeth , they had the following children:
1. Mary Louise Ketchum was born about 1846/1847, died 1 April 1928, and was buried in the Carselowery Cemetery.
1862 Allotment #157.
2. Jane O. Ketchum was born about 1849/1850 and died 2 March 1894. [1862 Allotment #158]
3. Barbara Ketchum was born about 1850/1852, lived in Marion, Kansas. and died  1894. 1862 Allotment #160.
4. Simon W. Ketchum was born 27 Feb. 1855 and died 2 Decmber 1901.
5. Silas Ketchum was born 12 Jan. 1857,  died 2 December 1901, and was buried in the Ketchum Private Cemetery near Vinita, Oklahoma. 1862 Allotment #161.  [According to one source (not known at the present), a daughter was Katy Long. Another source (not specified at the present time) says that she was the daughter of Isaac Journeycake. Does anyone have further information on her? Editor]
6. Lucinda Ketchum was born about 1858 and died 2 December 1876. 1862 Allotment #162.
7. Solomon or Solomon C. Ketchum was born 27 Jan. 1861, died 1945, and was buried in The Private Ketchum Cemetery near Vinita, Oklahoma. 1862 Allotment #163.  He was a noted boxer in Kansas City and was declared to be the Champion Indian Fighter of the World.  Solomon was one of the Delaware who remained in Kansas, but later moved to Indian Territory and became a member of the Eastern Delaware Tribe.
8. Hatty Ann Ketchum was born 1868, died 1869, and was buried in the Ketchum Private Cemetery near Vinita, OK.

He said that his mother was Elizabeth Zeigles [Zeigler].

Lewis Ketchum  was on the list of Delaware Indians who decided to remain in  Kansas. In 1870 he was in the U. S., Kansas, Wyandotte Co., Quindaro census at age 55, a harnesser, real estate worth $18,900, personal property worth $700, born in Indiana. In the 1880 Census for Quindaro, Wyandotte County, Kansas (LDS Family Search Census/Index 2001, LDS Family History Library Film 1254400, National Archives Film T9-0400, p. 305D), Lewis Ketchum is listed as a farmer, age 44, born Indiana with and parents born Ohio. His wife, Elizabeth Ketchum is keeping house at age 44. She was born in Kansas, her father was born in Pennsylvania, and her mother was born in New York. Their children listed were Silas Ketchum age 21, Mary Ketchum age 33, and Solomon Ketchum age 19,  all born in Kansas, were helping on the farm. A Thomas Campbell, farm laborer, age 14 born Missouri, father born Indiana, and mother born in Kansas was living in their household. Their Son Simon Ketchum is listed in the same census (p. 425C) in his own household in Wyandotte Township, Wyandotte Co., Kansas as a farmer, age 25, with this wife Emma Ketchum, keeping house, age 21. She is listed as having been born in North Carolina and her parents in South Carolina.  Sometime later, the Lewis Ketchum Family moved to Indian Territory (present Oklahoma) and became  members of the Eastern Delaware Tribe of Indians. He settled near Ketchum, southeast of Vinita, in 1882.  Lewis  Ketchum had Cherokee Enrollment #36 in the Delaware District. He was on the Dawes Commission 1898 Roll as #32529 and in the 1904 Cherokee Census as #10429. He died in Indian Territory (present Oklahoma) on 28 March 1904 and was buried in the Sol Ketchum Cemetery (private), in Craig County, Oklahoma. [Tyler and Timmons, Our People and Where They Rest, p. 54.] Lewis  had Dawes Commission 1898 Roll as #32529 and on the 1904 Cherokee Census  as #10429.  Lewis Ketchum's Delaware citizenship status was made official in 1951 when, the Delaware Tribe of Indians added him and four other persons who had remained in Kansas to their 1906 roll.

Much of the data above on the Ketchum Family was provided by Sol Ketchum's granddaughter and Lewis Ketchum's great-granddaughter.  Researchers: Vickie Wilkins and  Thomas F. Hahn

KETCHUM, Nancy - The Lenape name of Nancy Ketchum was Lenape name Aupamundaqua or Aquamdegaockwe. We are using the Ketchum family name of her mother because we are not yet certain who her father is. Nancy Ketchum was married to Isaac Journeycake. To add to the confusion, her mother also went by the name of Nancy Ketchum. The biography of the latter  will be added.  We are currently working on verifying who her parents were. One family record shows them as William Long and Katy Ketchum. We had previously thought that her mother was Echelangonaockwe and her father Twehullahlah (Chief George Ketchum of Pennsylvania) . It is possible that these two women, both named Nancy Ketchum,  were the sisters of Elizabeth (Betsy) Wilaquenaho. Researcher: Vickie Wilkins

Image to be added if found

This is an image of Aupahmundaqua or Aquamdageockwe, English name (also) Nancy Ketchum, the wife of Isaac Journeycake, ca.1900. The photo was provided by Flora Jane Wilson from Ruby Cranor's book "Kik Tha We Nund" the Delaware Chief William Anderson and His Descendants.

KETCHUM, Nancy [1] - Lenape name Aupheehiliqua, the mother of Sally Owl Honeywell.


This image may be of Aupheeheliqua, English name Nancy Ketchum, the mother of Sally Owl Honeywell, ca.1880. We are working on the identification. It was furnished by Flora Jane Wilson.

KETCHUM, Solomon "Sol" C. - In an interview on 9 June 1937, at Vinita, Oklahoma, in an interview by Field Worker, J. R. Carselowy, found in the Indian Pioneer Papers, Sol Ketchum said:

My name is Sol. C. Ketchum. I was born February 22, 1861, in Wyandotte County, Kansas. I now live at Vinita, Oklahoma.

When my father sold our homestead in Kansas and came to the Indian Territory I was just 22 years old, and decided I would sow a few wild oats before settling down in a new country. We got $50 an acre for our land in Wyandotte County, Kansas, and I took my part and went to Kansas City where I trained for a prize fighter. I got good enough that a promoter took me up, and after a little more training he became my manager and we began matching fights.

My manager's name was Billie Morris of Kansas City and he matched me first with John P. Clow of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Our managers got into a squabble and this fight was called off/ My next match was with Paddy Dunn, champion heavyweight of Kansas. He weighed in at about 185 pounds and I weighed in at 156, which put me in the middle weight class. The fight was staged at Vinita and I won in the eighth round and was declared the heavyweight champion of Kansas. My next match was with Billie McCarty of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. This fight was staged at the old fair grounds in Vinita, and I won it in 15 rounds. My next fight was with Ed Burk champion middleweight of Arkansas. While in training for this fight, Burk married a rich woman at Fort Smith where the fight was to be staged and she induced him to call off the fight, and retire from the ring. My manager then matched me with Billie _____, the champion prize fighter of Old Mexico. We fought this battle at Choctaw Park, Fort Smith, Arkansas. It was the hardest fight I ever had in my life. That man nearly     broke my neck before I got my Indian up enough to hold my own against him. He was a real fighter, and he had set in to K. O. me in the first few rounds. I soon had both his eyes bunged up so that he couldn't see very well, and in the sixth round I broke his nose and mashed his mouth so badly that he was a mess of blood  at the end of the round, I knocked him out in the seventh round. A reporter for the St. Louis Republic was present and had me issue a challenge, through his paper, to any Indian in America, and when none appeared I was declared the champion Indian fighter in the world, and retired.

Cookie Brown, a Cherokee fighter from Pueblo, Colorado, and I decided to put on an exhibition fight at Muscogee, but as both of us were Indians we had to get the permission of Leo E. Bennett, then Indian Agent at the Five Civilized Tribes. Bennett told us that we could fight all right, but if either one of us got to hitting too hard, he was going to shoot us. We fought a few rounds and soon forgot all about Bennett's caution and were soon pecking away like a river welder, when old Leo raised up from a ring side seat, drew a big old .45 from his holster, and I thought sure he was going to make his word good, but it was only a gentle reminder.

Comments by a field worker: When I called on this man, Sol C. Ketchum, now 76 years old, I found him plowing corn on the old homestead where his father settled in 1881. He is the old child left living out of five. He had two grown boys living with him. One was out hoeing out in the orchard and the other was sitting around the house. I asked his wife if this grown boy sitting in the house couldn't go and plow for him, and let him give me his story. She said that they couldn't plow to please him, and that he never let them plow corn for him.; but he did, long enough to give me this story. Sol Ketchum had been a powerful man, physically, all his life, and in a way he has kept up his athletics. I had a young man, who was very strong, and looked to be much of a man, tell me a short time ago that he would just as soon a mule kick him as to have Sol Ketchum hit him one good lick. Sol's address at the time of the interview in 1937 was RFD 3, Vinita, Oklahoma.

 KIKTHAWENUND--William Anderson is the English name for Delaware Chief KikThaWeNund, also spelled as Kechkawhanund, Kechlawwhenind, Kithteellund, and Kithtuwhelund, all of whom may be the same person. He was born in the 1740s in Anderson's Ferry (present Marietta) Pennsylvania. His father was a Swedish trader and his mother was a Delaware, the daughter of Delaware Tribal Chief Netawatwees. During the Revolutionary War, Anderson sided with pro-American, Chief White Eyes. After the war, when Anderson was the chief of the Turkey Clan, the Delaware made an arrangement with the Miami to settle on their land along the White River in present Indiana, Chief Anderson settled in a small village in what is now Anderson in a two-story log house. Kikthawenund was an important leader who helped keep the Delaware out of the uprising led by the Shawnee Prophet and his brother. In 1818, he signed the Treaty of St. Mary's for the Delaware and made his preparations for relocation. He was with the tribe on their journey to Kansas and spent much of his life trying to negotiate a better settlement for the  Delaware. Chief Anderson had four known sons and daughters. According to some, his daughter Mekingis married William Conner, a white trader, and had six children by him. [We are seeking the proof for that. Editor]. Conner decided to remain behind in Indiana when his wife and six children left with the tribes to receive their land in the west. Although he re-married a white woman three months later while Mekingis was still in Indiana, her reportedly paid her a fair price for her Indian lands in Indiana, gave half of his money and a large number of horses.  A missionary in 1823 described Anderson as "a very dignified man in character and appearance, upward of six feet tall, well proportioned, a man of great benevolence and power, of excellent understanding, but not a public speaker." [To be continued.] For more detailed information, see Ruby Cranor, KIK-Tha-We-Nund, The Delaware Chief. (Based on an article in the Conner Prairie web site http://www.connerprairie.org/cp/connbiol.html ) Researcher: Tom Swiftwater Hahn  

Another version of the life of Kikthawenund or Chief William Anderson has been provided by Laurence D. Heady:

Kikthawenund or Chief William Anderson was principal chief of the Delaware Nation during the period of our "Diaspora" from Pennsylvania to Ohio and Indiana, or the Northwest Territory, and finally to the Trans-Mississippi-Missouri and Kansas. Kikthawenund was born in the 1740s in Anderson's Ferry (now Marietta). Pennsylvania. His mother was a daughter of the Delaware's principal chief Netaawatwees and his father was the Swedish Indian trader John Anderson, of the Susquehanna country. Throughout his life, went by both his Lenape name and his father's name. Not much is known about his early life, but he was much influenced by his grandfather [Netaawatwees] with whom he spent much of his time. Tribal strife during the Revolutionary War divided the Delaware. Kikthawenund sided with Wicocalind, who was pro-American. After the war, increasing white settlement in Pennsylvania drove the tribe west. The Delaware struck a bargain with the Miami to settle some of their territory and Kikthawenund (by then the Head Chief of the Turkey Clan of the Unami Delaware) and his tribe settled in several villages along the White River [in Indiana]. Kikthawenund himself settled in a small village located in what is now downtown Anderson, Indiana. During the uprising of Tecumseh and his brother The Prophet, he kept his tribe out of war. In 1818, he sign the Treaty Of St. Mary's for the Delaware and reluctantly prepared to be relocated. The tribe left Indiana and had a troubled journey to Kansas, where they settled briefly [ about thirty five years] before the final removal to Indian Territory. He spent most of the rest of his life trying to  negotiate a better settlement for our people. Kikthawenund had four known sons and one daughter. His sons became famous scouts and guides for the western-bound wagon trains. His daughter, Mekingees, was born of his union with his second wife, Achechelungunaqua, the daughter of Chief Captain Patterson. Mekinges, also known as Elizabeth Anderson, married William Conner, a white trader, and had six children by him. When the Delaware left Indiana, Conner decided that his wife and children should go to receive their land in the West, but that he would stay. He re-married (to a white woman) before Mekinges left Indiana, but otherwise was fair to her, giving her half his money and a large group of horses. He also bought the family's Indian lands, and gave a fair price for them. A missionary who met Kikthawenund described him as "A very dignified man in character and appearance, upward of six feet tall, well proportioned, a man of great benevolence and power, of excellent understanding, but not a public speaker." He was probably a wise businessman as well. When the Moravian missionaries living in the Anderson area lefty after a five-year residence, the Chief charged them "one young ox, three hogs and a table made from the wood of the place," as rent before he would allow them to go. In Indiana, romantic legends abound about Chief Anderson. It is told that he died there, by riding his pony off a high bluff into the White River. Another story credits him with a second daughter who also married a trader and who stayed in Indiana when the tribe left. Kikthawhenund is said to have returned to visit her and to have died during the visit. In the 1890's, when  the Anderson Hotel was being built, a skeleton was found which many locals were convinced belonged to him. However, tribal historians record that he died 1831 in the tribe's new home in Missouri. (Laurence "Larry" D. Heady, a descendant of Kikthawhenund,  is a Member of the Delaware Tribe of Indians. He lives in Minnesota. Any comments regarding this entry should be sent to him, lenapelh@hotmail.com, with a copy to the Editor  swiftwater@lenapedelawarehistory.net) [There is as yet no proof of where he was buried. Editor]

                                                       * * *

Died: William Anderson, aged head chief of the Delaware nation, in the latter part of September, 1832 at his home on the Delaware reserve, present Wyandotte county. He had been a Kansas resident less than one year. Though Anderson had some white blood, according to Missionary Johston Lykins, he had "shewed but little disposition to embrace [ white man's] manners and customs."
The chief's deah (possibly from the then-prevalent smallpox) occurred after September 22 1832 on wich date Anderson wrote a letter in which he made mention of his four sons: Captains Shounack ( Shawanock ), Pushkies, Secondyan (Secondine ), and Sacacoxy ( Sarcoxie ).

At a later time " Secondine " was the name of a Wyandotte county post office ( from 1856-1859) " Sarcoxie " was the name of a Jefferson county post office ( from 1889-1901 ). (The Kansas Historical Quarterly Summer 1962.

* * *

(Consolidated Docket No. 317, Defendant Exhibits 61-171, Dft. Ex.119 National Archives, RG 107. H-360 (2) Enc. 1, p. 1)

Patterson, William, a Delaware Indian Chief, to William Wells. Fort Wayne, April 5, 1805.  White River March 30. 1805.

We send to you our Nephew William Patterson to Counsell with you, we wish that you will listen to what he says concerning of Governor Harrisons purchasing a large Tract of Land, we know nothing of it, we have not in our power to sell land and more than that it is contrary to the articles of the Treaty of Greenville therefore we send to you the writing the Governor gave us, when he gave it to us, he told us that it wan an instrument of writing to keep peace and friendship among us- therefore we wish that you will see into it and let the President our Father know that the purchase is unlegal, and that he may take such measures as will prevent it from being settled, this is all, but you will listen to what Patterson says, as we cannot have all wrote what we wish to say, this is all at present but remain your uncles signed)
 Tethteposeske his mark +      
(   "  ) Buckingehelas his mark +       
(  "   ) Hockingpomskon his mark +  

Capt William Wells.  I certify that the forigoing is a true translation of what the above signed chiefs said to William Wells. signed) John Connor

* * *

(Consolidated Docket No. 317, Defendant Exhibits 61-171, Dft. Ex.119 National Archives, RG 107. H-360(2), Enc. 2, p. 1)

The address of William Patterson a Delaware Indian Chief to William Wells Agent of Indian Affairs, delivered at Fort Wayne in the Indiana Territory, April 5. 1805

Friend and Brother! listen to what I now say to you I am sent by the Chiefs of my Nation to speak the following words to you.

Friend and Brother! my Chiefs take you by the hand and salute you and inform you that it has pleased God that they should see another Spring.

Friend and Brother, my Chiefs informs you that their minds are troubled concerning the visit they made Governor Harrison last summer at Vincennes they were invited to that place by the Governor and on their arrival they were much pleased to hear him say that he wished to brighten the chain of friendship between the White and Red people and that he had invited them to see them for that purpose.

Friend and Brother! our Chiefs was told by the Governor that he wished them to become more civilized and that he would give them an addition to their annuity of Five hundred Dollars a year to enable them to procure the necessary articles for the purpose of enabling them to cultivate their Lands and that he was present when the Miamies gave all White River to the Delawares and that he would give them an instrument of writing that would shew that the Country on White River belonged to the Delawares- he farther told our Chiefs that the Piankishaw did not acknowledge the right of the Delawares to the lands on White River, but he would satisfy them on this head and would give them money out of his own pocket in order to get them to acknowledge the right of the Delawares to the Lands on White River, and that the road from Vincennes to the Falls should in future be the boundary line between the Lands of the Delawares and Piankishaws.

* * *

Patterson, William, a Delaware Indian Chief, to William Wells. Fort Wayne, April 5, 1805.

words was spoke to our Chiefs by the Governor they were much pleased with what he said, the Governor then wrote two papers which he told our chiefs contained the words he had just spoken to them and that he wished them to sign them both that he would send one to the President of the United States and one they could keep themselves, in order that the good words he had spoke might be kept in remembrance by the white and Red people- our chiefs chearfully signed these papers.

Friend and Brother! you may judge how our chiefs felt when they returned home and found that the Governor had been shutting up their eys and stopping their Ears with his good words and got them to sign a Deed for their Lands without their Knowledge.

Friend and Brother, the Chiefs of my Nation now declare to you from the bottom of their hearts in the presence of God that they never sold Governor Harrison or the United States any land at Vincennes last summer to their knowledge.

Friend and Brother, my Chiefs well remembers that all disputes between them and the United States are to be settled in a peaceable manner and I am directed by them to tell you that they place confidence in you and it is their wish that you take such immediate steps as may appear to you to be best for bringing about a fair understanding on the subject of the Treaty that it appears they signed last summer at Vincennes, and that you as soon as possible inform our great father the President of the United States how Governor Harrison has attempted to impose on his Red Children

Friend and Brother, my chiefs declare to you that they are not willing to sell the lands on the Ohio from the mouth of the Wabash to Clarks grant at the Falls, and that they consider it out of their power to do any such thing without the consent of the other Nations in this Country.

Friend and Brother, my Chiefs wishes you to prevent this land being settled by the white people Friend and Brother these are the words that was put in my mouth by the chiefs of my nation in order that I might deliver them to you. {signed} William Patterson + his mark

I certify that the above is a true translation of what William Patterson a Delaware Chief said to William Wells this 5th. Day of April 18O5. (signed) John Connor

LYKINS, Dr. Johnston

Johnston Lykins was a Baptist minister, teacher and self-taught doctor who worked with several American Indian tribes, including the Potawatomi, in Indiana, Michigan, Missouri and Kansas during the first half of the nineteenth century. He was a follower and son-in-law of the Baptist missionary to the Indians, Isaac McCoy. Lykins joined the McCoy mission among the Wea in northern Indiana as a young man of 20 in 1819. He was hired as a schoolteacher. He was not a Christian, much less a missionary. The work was arduous; he spent more time getting supplies and running other errands required to keep the missions going than he did teaching school. He quit several times over the first several years but always came back.

McCoy moved his mission to Fort Wayne, home of the Miamis, in 1820. In late 1822, the little group moved again, this time founding the Carey Mission among the Potawatomi in Michigan. Lykins was baptized in that year and was appointed to the post of missionary by the Baptist Board of Missions for the United States. By 1824, Lykins was able to read religious discourses in Potawatomi. Although an additional mission working with the Ottawa on the Grand River was started later, the Carey Mission remained open and Lykins continued to serve there part of the time. Lykins married McCoy's daughter in 1828.

The Removal was well underway in 1831 when Lykins went west to found a mission in Missouri, near the Shawnee reservation. The McCoy group had begged the Baptist mission board for a printing press for some time, and finally received funding for their project to prepare reading materials in the various Native American languages. Jotham Meeker, another of McCoy's missionaries, brought the first printing press to Kansas in 1833. The printing operation was located at the Shawnee mission. Books in Delaware, Shawnee, Potawatomi and other native languages were rapidly put to work in missionary educational programs. Lykins was actively involved and edited the Sinwiowe Kesibwi (Shawnee Sun), a small newspaper published entirely in Shawnee. From time to time throughout his career, Lykins was called upon to negotiate with tribal leaders on various matters, generally having to do with their leaving their homes and moving west. He was not very successful in these efforts. In 1841, he attempted to convince the Potawatomi residing in Council Bluffs to move to Kansas, to no avail.

His part-time medical career went better, at least for a time. He had no formal training, but medical training was often casual in those days. Faced by the desperate need of his Native American students and their families, who were succumbing to one disease after another, he read and did what he could. He already had achieved a reputation as an effective physician when he first went to Missouri. There he was confronted by a smallpox epidemic on the Shawnee reservation and began a vaccination program. This simple and practical response hardly seems noteworthy to the modern reader, but it is always mentioned by Lykins' biographers. The conclusion that such vaccination programs were unusual is a sad one, and difficult to avoid.

In the spring of 1843, Lykins founded a mission among the Potawatomi, at a location near Topeka. In 1843, some of the Potawatomi requested that he be named their tribal physician, a government post that provided him with a salary that was necessary to support the mission. His appointment was opposed by the Jesuits and the Potawatomi allied with them, but was finally granted in 1844. Today the restored mission, which was improved and expanded in later years, is a museum. Lykins began a trade school at the mission in March, 1848; by September of 1851, attendance had grown to 90. Quarrels abounded between clergy of the different Christian religions and even clerics of the same faith. Lykins was an enthusiastic participant in these, and made many enemies. The criticism of his lack of medical credentials never let up and he was dismissed from his official post as Physician to the Potawatomi in 1851. He left the Potawatomi mission shortly thereafter. He served at his former post until it was closed in 1855. He then moved to Kansas City, to be near his son, and remained there until his death in 1876.

Johnston Lykins' translation of the Gospel of Saint Matthew and the Acts of the Apostles into Potawatomi was published in 1844 by William C. Buck's printing firm in Louisville, Kentucky. One of the rare copies is held by the Library of the Indiana Historical Society in Indianapolis. It is available on microfilm through the Interlibrary Loan Program.
(This article was submitted by Martha Sue Likins Faulkner msfaulkner@glasgow-ky.com  . She has considerable data on the Lycon/Likin/Lykin  Family,  The original source of the article is not known.)

Dr. Johnston Lykins commenced his labors among the Indians in 1819, as teacher in the school established among the Weas and Kickapoos of Indiana by Rev. Isaac McCoy. He removed to Fort Wayne with Mr. McCoy, and in 1822, when the Carey Mission was established among the Pottawatomies on the St. Joseph River in Michigan, was appointed teacher at that station. At the age of twenty-two, he was appointed missionary, and on the 15th of June, 1822, went to the Carey Station with Mr. McCoy to make preparations for opening the mission, erecting buildings, etc. Mr. Lykins had charge of the school at Carey until July, 1825, when he was appointed teacher for the Ottawas at Thomas Mission, also in Michigan. Of his labors while associated with himself, Mr. McCoy says: "Neither the performance of the most disagreeable services for the sick, whether they were missionaries, their children, or Indian children, nor their peevishness and unreasonable demands, nor the deathlike disappointments, which, in various forms, hovered around our abode, moved him from his noble determination to do right." On the 7th of June, 1826, he was licensed to preach, and in the autumn of that year, the schools being somewhat impoverished, he made a journey of 100 miles through the wilderness to Chicago to procure supplies for Carey, and another by way of Lake Michigan for the benefit of Thomas Mission." On the 25th of February, 1827, he was married to the eldest daughter of Mr. McCoy.

After the sale of the Carey property, in the fall of 1828, Dr. Lykins remained at that station for a time to aid in settling the Indian affairs, and in July, 1831, with his family, came to the Indian Territory, and at his own expense purchased a small tract of land contiguous to the Shawnees, put up a small building and commenced teaching the Indians. The small pox soon broke out among them, and Dr. Lykins, who had studied and practiced medicine with his other labors, made himself useful now by visiting, doctoring and vaccinating the Shawnee sick. In 1832, he was authorized by the Baptist Board to erect mission buildings, and, the following year, was authorized by Lewis Cass, Secretary of War, to visit the various tribes west of the Mississippi and report favorable sites for missionary establishments. From this time, his work was chiefly that of superintending the formation and work of the various Baptist missions in the Indian Territory--a position for which he was especially fitted. He was ordained a minister October 18, 1835, then having special charge of the Shawnee and Delaware Missions. After the abandonment of missionary work in Kansas, Dr. Lykins continued to reside at Kansas City, and died at that place a few years ago.

(Submitted by Arlene Micucci (Kansas Delaware) from William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas, Chicago: 1883, art 6, Indian History, "Early Missionaries." This article was a part of the Kansas Collection of Books from the University of Kansas.
[The inclusion of this and other entries concerning the missionaries in Kansas editor does not mean that the editor makes a judgment endorsing their work, which is a matter of controversy.]

Paper copy made 23 April 2002. Proofread 29 March 2003. Times New Roman 14 point. Photo check A. TH

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