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22March 2005

CHRONOLOGY 1616 - 1840

1607 - Henry Hudson, while piloting the Half Moon on the Hudson River, encountered the Delaware
1616 - The beginning of trade between the Delaware and the Dutch in New York. (Tregillis)
1626 - High and Mighty Lords, Yesterday the ship the Arms of Amsterdam arrived here. It sailed from New Netherlands out of the River Mauritius on the 23d of September. They report that our people are in good spirit and live in peace. The women also have borne some children there. They have purchased the Island Manhattes from the Indians for the value of 60 guilders. It is 11,000 morgens in size [about 22,000 acres]. They had all their grain sowed by the middle of May, and reaped by the middle of August They sent samples of these summer grains: wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, canary seed, beans and flax. The cargo of the aforesaid ship is:
7246 Beaver skins
178 Otter skins
675 Otter skins
48 Mink skins
36 Lynx skins
33 Minks
34 Weasel skins
Many oak timbers and nut wood. Herewith, High and Mighty Lords, be commended to the mercy of the Almighty,
Your High and Mightinesses' obedient, P.[eter] Schaghen
One of the historical icons of American colonial history is the $24.00 purchase of Manhattan Island. The basis for this figure came directly from the Schaghen letter  when the 60 guilders was translated using the monetary conversion rate of late 1800s. In no way does it accurately reflect the value of the goods received by the Indians for an island which they only used for hunting purposes. They also were unaware that the transaction was for permanent possession of the land--a concept totally foreign to them. Land could be used but never owned. (New Netherland Project, New York State Library)
1626 July - . . . the island was home to a small group of natives of who he called the Manhatesen--: "they are about 200 to 300 strong, women and men, under different chiefs, who they call Sackimas.". It was presumable this small band--probably a northern branch of the Lenni-Lenape Indians--with whom Peter Minuit consummated a real estate transaction.
The History of Native American Tribes. Delaware





Early Drawing of the Delaware
- Native Americans, possibly Delaware, attacked the Dutch settlement of  Swanendaelael. (Tregillis) At about this time, the Delaware began  their migration to the west along the Susquehanna River.
1682 - The Delaware were centered at Shackamaxon, present Germantown, Pennsylvania. (K&K)
1682 - At the "Walking Treaty" with William Penn in Pennsylvania, the Delaware complained that they had been defrauded by the interpretation of the treaty. As a consequence, the "authorities" called upon the Six Nations to subjugate the Delaware. (Tregillis)
1709 - Schuylkill Lenape began settling on the Susquehanna River, first at Paxtang (present Harrisburg, Pennsylvania). (Westlager).
ca. 1717 - The Kansas River is mentioned for the first time in historical accounts and the surrounding country described: "This is the finest country and the most beautiful land in the world; the prairies are like the seas, and filled with wild animals; especially oxen, cattle [buffalo], hind, and stag, in such quantities as to surpass the imagination."  (Barry,  Beginning of the West, p. 12).
1720 - The Delaware surrendered their sovereignty to the Iroquois and agreed not to sell their land or to make war. (K&K)
1720s - The Southern Unami Lenape went up the Susquehanna to Shamoken. (Westlager)
1724 - Some Southern Unami Lenape went to Kittanning on the Allegheny River. (Ibid.)
By 1725 - Some Delaware were located at Kittanning on the Allegheny River in Pennsylvania.
1732 - The Schuylkill Lenape ceded land at Tulpehocking. (Westlager)
1737 - Northern Delaware were forced to move from 1,2000 square miles of their land as a result of the fraudulent "walking purchase" of their land in Pennsylvania. (Ibid.)
ca. 1742 - The Delaware moved to the Susquehanna River at present-day Wyoming, Pennsylvania. From there they moved gradually down the river, living for a while at Beaver. (K&K)
After 1750 - Most of the Southern Unami Delaware were in the lower Allegheny River Valley and in the upper Ohio river valleys where they formed the nucleus of the westward-migrating Delaware. (Smithsonian)
1751 - At the invitation of the Wyandot (Huron), the Delaware, along with the Munsee and Mahican who had also been driven out of the east, began to settle in Eastern Ohio, principally along the Muskingum River and other streams. (Tregillis)
1755 - Roger's Rangers commissioned Delaware warriors as prominent guides, scouts, and soldiers.
1758 - All Indian claims in New Jersey were relinquished by the few remaining groups of Delaware. Those wishing to remain were given a reservation at Brotherton. That group eventually went west with the Stockbridge Mahican and another Brotherton group from New England. They ended up in Wisconsin where they were joined by some Munsee who had gone to Canada and where they remain today. (Westlager)
August  1758 - A conference regarding the return of prisoners and land questions was held for about ten days between the British in Pennsylvania and the Cayuga, Conoy, Delaware, Mahican, Nanticoke, and Onondaga. (Unknown source)
1763 - British General Jeffrey Amherst approved the infection of Delaware with smallpox in blankets.
1763 - Angry colonists, known as the Paxton Boys, murdered peaceful Indians in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in retaliation for the killing of settlers who had invaded the land of the Delaware.                                                            

By 1769 - Some Nanticoke from Maryland and Delaware and some Conoy from Maryland went west with the Delaware rather than going north to join the Six Nations. By this year some Nanticoke were in the largely-Munsee village of Goshgohink on the western side of the Allegheny River. (Smithsonian, p. 246)
By 1772 - By this year the center of the Delaware was on the upper part of the Muskingum River, at first near present Newcomerstown, and later at the present town of Coshocton. The Moravian missionaries came here in 1772 with a group of Christian Indians from Pennsylvania. (Edmund De Schweinitz, The Life and Times of David Zeisberger...p. 374, 1870)
1772 - At the Treaty of Pittsburgh, the Delaware agreed to neutrality in the American Revolution in return for assurance that the Ohio River would be the western boundary of White settlement and agreed to move to the upper forks of the Muskingum at Newcomerstown. (Westlager)
17 September 1778 - The Delaware signed a Treaty with the United States at Fort Pitt [present Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania].  This was the first treaty between the United States and an Indian tribe. The treaty included a provision for an Indian state with representation in Congress. The latter never happened. (Kappler, Treaties, pp. 3-5).[ See the Pre-Kansas Treaty Section for the full text and for the Delaware signers.]
Wicolalind pledged aid in the war with England.
1780 - Captain John Montour musters a Delaware Company into the service of the United States.
1780s - The Delaware and the Shawnee jointly lived in a village on the Bowling Green River, four miles below the junction of the North and South Forks in Licking County. [Confusingly, there were Piqua in Ohio, also in Clark, Miami, and Pickaway counties.] (Tregillis)
April 1781 - American Colonel Broadhead attacked and defeated the Indians at the Delaware capital, Goscachgunk, present Ohio, in what is known as Brodhead's Expedition. (Thompson, Sons of the Wilderness, p. 23.)
1782 - Ninety six Christian Indians were massacred at Gnadenhutten, Ohio, in 1782 by American militia. (Smithsonian)
After 1782 - One result of the 1782 massacre at Gnadenhutten was that one Moravian mission band moved to southeastern Michigan. (Smithsonian, p. 223)
1783 - Some Delaware lived in Greentown in later Richland County (section 18 of Green Township). The town was named after Thomas Green, companion to Jelloway, Armstrong, Billy Montour, and Tom Lyons. [At least Armstrong and Billy Montour were Delaware.] The town was occupied until as early as 1812. (Tregillis)
By 1785 - A Nanticoke group of about fifty moved from a Buffalo Creek location to a village on the Maumee River near the Delaware and Shawnee. (Smithsonian, p. 246)
21 January 1785 - A treaty between the Delaware, Wyandot, Chippewa, Potawatomie, and Ottawa at Fort McIntosh established the boundaries of Indian lands in Ohio. The Delaware occupied the land between the Cuyahoga and Miami Rivers. Some of the Delaware chiefs who had served the Americans (in the Revolutionary War) were acknowledged by the treaty. (Kappler, Treaties, pp. 3-5) [See the Pre-Kansas Delaware Treaties Section for the full text and Delaware signers.]
At the end of the Revolutionary War no Delaware groups lived east of the northwest corner of the present state of Ohio.  (Westlager)
1788/1789 - Some Delaware and Shawnee were located near Cape Girardeau [Missouri]. A band of Delaware attacked residents near St. Louis. (K&K) This group, called the "Absentee Delaware," were granted permission to settle in this Spanish Territory.
1789 - Some Delaware took up lands near Cape Girardeau, [Missouri]  at the invitation of the Spanish governor.  (Smithsonian, p. 223)
At the Treaty of Fort Harmar the Delaware ceded more land but the Delaware retained hunting rights.
1791 - The main tribe of Delaware was at Grand Blaze, Ohio. There were 480 warriors [presumably Delaware] who served under Buckongahelas at the defeat of St. Clair. (Tregillis)
Some of the Munsee who went up the Allegheny River settled with the Seneca. (Smithsonian, p. 223)
3 November  1791 - Northwest Territory Governor, General Arthur St. Clair, was defeated by twelve hundred Indians led by Little Turtle, Blue Jacket, and Buckongahelas . (Thompson, Sons of the Wilderness, p. 7)
1792 - The Moravian mission band that moved from Gnadenhutten, Ohio to southeastern Michigan went to Ontario, Canada. They established the town of Fairfield on the Thames River which became the present Moraviatown, east of Thamesville. (Smithsonian,  p. 223) Another band, the Munsee, is located at Munceytown.
August 1795 - The Treaty of Greenville, Ohio clarified the boundaries between various tribes and nations and the United States. Included were the Delaware, Wyandot, Shawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa, Potawatomie, Miami, Eel-River, Wea, Kickapoo. Piankashaw, and Kaskaskia. The Delaware gave up much land in Pennsylvania and Ohio. [See Pre-Kansas Delaware Treaties for the full text and signers.]
After 1795 - After the Treaty of Greenville, most Delaware went to the upper West Fork of the White River in Indiana where they were in several villages strung out over 40 miles for about a quarter of a century. (Smithsonian, p. 223)
After 1795 - After the Treaty of Greenville, Jerome, Captain Pipe and other Delaware went to the site of Mohican Johnstown on the south side of the stream about three-quarters of a mile from the present Jeromeville where they established a town. (Tregillis)
1804 - At the Treaty of Vincennes, the Delaware ceded lands between the Ohio and Wabash rivers.
1803 - At the Treaty of Fort Wayne, new boundaries were set for the Delaware and other tribes and salt springs were ceded..
By 1805 - Hostilities with the Osage in southern Missouri were under way. (Smithsonian, 224)
4 July 1805 - Under a treaty made at Fort Industry on the Miami River in Ohio, the Delaware, Wyandot, Ottawa, Chippewa, Munsee, Shawnee, and Potawatomie relinquished some of their claims to the United States.  (Tregillis) [See the Pre-Kansas Delaware Treaties section for the full text and signers.]
18 October 1805  - At St. Louis, through the efforts of Indiana Territory Governor William Henry Harrison and General James Wilkinson, a reconciliation-and-peace treaty was made between the Delaware, Miami, Pottawatomie, Kickapoo, Sac & Fox, Kaskaskia, Des Moines River Sioux, of the one part, and the Great and Little Osage of the other part. (Jackson, ed., Letters of the Louis and Clark Expedition, cited in Barry, Beginning of the West, p. 50.
1806 - Witchcraft   purges" of Delaware and Shawnee villages by followers  of Tenskatawa.                                                                    
1808 - There were 800 Delaware in Ohio at Wapeminskink, a few at Sandusky, a few on the Muskingum, and a large body at Fairfield, Canada. Others were located on the West Fork of the White River in Indiana where there were at least nine Delaware towns from present Indianapolis to Muncie, Indiana. They were disappointed in their life there and many reverted back to their old ways and alcoholism became a problem. (Tregillis/Westlager)
The Second Treaty of Fort Wayne, the Delaware gave up tribal lands established by the 1803 Fort Wayne Treaty.
1814 - At the Treaty of Greenville, the Delaware pledged amity, fidelity, and aid to the United States in the war with Great Britain.
1815 - The Delaware left the Cape Girardeau Reservation in Missouri. (K&K)
8 September 1815 - At Spring Wells [near Detroit], U. S. special agents made a peace-and-friendship treaty with the Wyandot, Delaware, Seneca, Shawnee, Miami, Chippewa, Ottawa, and Pottawatomie nations living in Ohio and the territories of Indiana and Michigan. (C. J. Kapler, Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties (Washington, 1904), 2: 110-124, in Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 74.)
By 1817 - Delaware had begun settling on the Red River in southwestern Arkansas. (Smithsonian)
29 September  1817 - Under a treaty made at the  Rapids of the Miami River in Ohio, the Delaware on the Sandusky River, Wyandot, Seneca, Shawnee, Potawatomie, Ottawa, and Chippewa relinquished more land to the United States. [For the full text and Delaware signers of this treaty, see the PRE-KANSAS DELAWARE TREATIES section.)
October/Early November 1817? - The Western Cherokee (the Cherokee who had  moved west of the Mississippi River
to the Arkansas River), with allied Delaware, Shawnee, Quapaw, and some Americans, went to the Osage's country on the Verdigris River and raided Clermont's village [near present Claremore, Oklahoma. There were no Osage warriors at the village. It was reported that they killed more than 80 old men, women, and children and took over 100 prisoners. They also set fire to the town and destroyed their provisions. (Barry, Beginning of the West, p. 78)
By 1818 - Remnants of Nanticoke earlier from Maryland and Delaware (and perhaps Conoy earlier from Maryland) crossed the Mississippi River to live with the Delaware. (Smithsonian, p. 246)
17 September 1818 - A treaty was made between the United States and the Delaware, Wyandot, Seneca, Shawnee, Ottawa, Potawatomie, and Chippewa at St. Mary's, Ohio concerning tracts for the use of Indian reservations and additional annuities. (Tregillis)
3 October 1818 - The 1,800 Delaware living on the White River in Indiana made a treaty with the United States at St. Mary's Ohio, ceding their lands, and agreeing to remove west to an unspecified location [Southwest Missouri]. Under the terms of that treaty the main body of the Delaware settled on a reservation on the James Fork of the White river in Southwest Missouri in present Greene, Taney, Christian, Barry, McDonald, Newton, Jasper, and Lawrence Counties where the Delaware of Cape Girardeau and others joined them. Many of the Ohio Delaware remained behind on the Pipe Stem Preserve. The Delaware from Indiana trekked to Pierre Menard's agency at Kaskaskia, Illinois, where they camped, planted and harvested, then moved on to the James Fork of the White River in southern Missouri. The trip from Indiana was arduous with much illness and many deaths. They soon became dissatisfied with the Osage, Pawnee, and other  tribes. Because of a scarcity of wildlife, the Delaware made forays westward to find game. This brought them in conflict with hostile Osage and other hostile groups. (Westlager)
2 February 1819 - The treaty between the United States and Spain set the western limits of the United States. The United States gave up claim, to present Texas and Spain gave up Florida and its right to the Oregon country.
1820-1822. The Delaware from Indiana trek to Pierre Menard's agency at Kaskaskia, Illinois, where they camp, pant, and harvest. then move on to the James Fork of the White River in southern Missouri. Many of the Ohio Delaware remain behind on the Pipestem Reserve.TheThe Delaware who had been at Cape Girardeau, Missouri, had gone to the Sabine and Red rivers in Texas, while others went to Southwest Missouri. (K & K)

August 10 - Missouri becomes a state. Soon after Missouri became a state, white settlers began moving into southwest Missouri. The primary route was down the Mississippi River to the White River in Arkansas, up the White River to the James River, and up the James to Wilson and Pearson's Creeks, thereby reaching present day Greene County. They established themselves as squatters, but when it was determined that the Indians had legal claim to the area, they were forced to move on, or as many of them did, bargained with the Indians and remained where they were. Names associated with this early settlement were: Augustine and William Friend, Jeremiah Pearson, John P. Pettijohn, and Joseph Phillabert. With the Delaware came a man by the name of James Wilson, who became known as the "squaw man" because he took Indian women as wives, one of whom was named Elizabeth. He settled along a stream that flowed into the James River and it became known as Wilson Creek.

2 April 1821 - The Osage, Delaware and Kickapoo Indian Agency was established as part of the St. Louis Superintendency. The Indian agent was Richard Graham. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 1) [The page numbers listed for "Hancks/Pratt," are those in Larry K. Hancks, The Delaware Indians in Kansas, John C. Pratt and the Delaware Baptist Mission.  Ed.]

11 March -  The Bureau of Indian Affairs was created by the Secretary of War John C. Calhoun. Then first head of the Bureau was Thomas L. McKinney. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 2)
May - Senator Thomas Hart Benson proposed legislation to remove the tribes then settled in Missouri. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 2)
7 June - The Osage were assigned to a separate agency and the Shawnee and Delaware Indian Agency was established in St. Louis. Richard Graham continued as the agent. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 2)
Mid-September - Mission Neosho, The first Indian mission and school in present Kansas, was started by Rev. Benton Pixley and his wife. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 117)

3 March - President James Monroe signed a bill to mark out a road from Missouri to the New Mexico boundary." (Hancks/Pratt, p. 118)
16 March - President Adams appointed three Santa Fe road commissioners to carry out the marking of the road noted on 3 March. (Hancks/Pratt, 119)
3 June -The Kansa Indians ceded their lands to the United States and accepted a reservation. This opened Kansas for the resettlement of  the eastern tribes. (Hancks/Pratt, 2)
7 November - The Shawnee agreed in a treaty with the United States, signed by Superintendent General William Clark at St. Louis,   to move to Kansas. At St. Louis, They agreed to cede their land claims in Missouri in the Cape Girardeau area for a tract 50 miles square win the area of the recent Osage cession and for $14,000 as payment for improvements of the land they gave up. (Hancks/Pratt, pp. 2, 127)

The Shawnee from Cape Girardeau settled south of the Kansas River in present Wyandotte and Johnson counties. Colonel Lewis and some of the Lewiston band joined them; 55 Ohio Shawnee passed through Pierre Menard's agency at Kaskaskia, Illinois on their way west. The Black Bob Band refused to reunite with the Ohio Shawnee and went to the White River in Arkansas. Other Shawnee,  "absentee" Shawnee, went to Texas and present Oklahoma. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 3)

8 May -
Colonel Henry Leavenworth, acting at variance with his orders, establishes Cantonment Leavenworth on the west bank of the Missouri River not far from the site of the old Fort de Cavagnial

25 September - A peace council held at St. Louis between the Great and Little Osage on the one hand, and the Delaware, Shawnee, Piankeshaw, Peoria, Wea, Seneca and Kickapoo on the other, to attempt to work out their differences. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 136)
About 1827 - One group of Delaware were with a group of Cherokee in East Texas and  were later on the Sabine and Naches Rivers. (Westlager)
By 1827 - Cantonment Leavenworth was built on the northern edge of Delaware land. (Farley, 2) Colonel Henry Leavenworth built the fort near the site of the old Fort de Cavagnial. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 3)

14 May - The Ohio Shawnee, led by Tensquatawa, the Prophet, arrived at the Shawnee Reserve. Their hardships have reduced his influence to a low ebb. Wit a few followers he established a new Prophetstown near the present 26th Street and Woodend Avenue in Kansas City, Kansas. (Hancks/Pratt, 3) The first immigrant Shawnee had come late in 1825. About one-half of the present group came from Waupaughkonetta in Ohio, while some were from the Merrimack River in Missouri, and others were from Lewiston, Ohio, and elsewhere. With some aid from the government, they were now in three or four settlements in present Shawnee Township, Wyandotte County and in Johnson County, both south of the Kansas River. Cornstalk and William Perry were with these Shawnee. (Kansas Historical Quarterly 5:260-261, 13:442)
4 to 24 September - U. S. Commissioner Isaac McCoy led a delegation of three Ottawa, two Potawatomie, and a half-Pottawatomie interpreter on an exploratory tour into present Kansas. McCoy was a Baptist missionary from Carey, Michigan. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 152)
4 November - Andrew Jackson, a strong advocate of Indian removal, was elected President. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 3)
By the End of 1828 - Angus Langham partially surveyed a tract for the Wea and Piankashaw and another for the Peoria and Kaskaskia in present Miami and Franklin counties. These tribes/nations residing in southwestern Missouri emigrated from that region four years before the treaties of 27 and 29 October  defined their legal reserves in present Kansas. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 155)
Latter Part of 1828 - Subagent John Campbell came from Missouri to occupy the Shawnee Agency (present Johnson County, near the Missouri line). His charges were the Piankashaw, Wea, and Peoria, whose tracts were south of the Shawnee Reserve. He was subordinate to Agent Richard Graham in 1828-1829, to George Vashon (who succeeded Agent Graham) 1829-1820, and to Vashon's successor, R. W. Cummins, in 1830-1833). Agent Graham was in charge of the Delaware, Shawnee, Kickapoo, Piankashaw, Wea, and Peoria residing in Missouri, Arkansas, and west of Missouri. He had his headquarters in St. Louis and visited the Indians under his supervision from there.  (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 156) 

Cyprian Choteau, one of the famous family of traders, built a trading post on the north end of the Kansas River ferry near the Grinter cabin on the Kansas Delaware Reserve. This post replaced the "Four Houses" that was located where the present Bonner Springs is because  that location was too far from the military trail to be profitable. (Farley, p. 3)
By 3 January - The Wea, Piankashaw and 350 Shawnee had removed from Missouri to the lands assigned to them in present Kansas. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 156)
15 April - George Vashon was appointed the Delaware and Shawnee Indian Agent, He replaced Richard Graham. John Campbell, who lived on the Shawnee Reserve, was the sub-agent. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 4)
3 August  - The Delaware who remained at Pipestown in Ohio signed a treaty with Indian Agent John McElvain, agreeing to cede their reserve to the U.S. and join the other Delaware west of the Mississippi. In exchange they were to receive $2,000 in coin and $1,000 in provisions. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 4)
3 August - 24 September-- In a treaty at St. Mary's, Ohio [on the Little Sandusky River] , the Delaware relinquished their land in Ohio in exchange for land west of the Mississippi. (Tregillis).  On October 3, 1818 the Delaware were forced to cede their Ohio claims for land west of the Mississippi river in Southwest Missouri. In 1829 they were relocated once again to a reservation in Kansas.  [This is the same treaty as the above entry.]
24 September - The main group of the Delaware agreed to a supplement to the Treaty of 1818 with Indian Agent George Vashon, agreeing to move from Missouri to Kansas. They were to receive support for the move, one year's provisions thereafter, a grist and saw mill within two years, and an additional permanent annuity of $1,000. Thirty-six of the best sections of their lands in Missouri were to be sold to provide a school fund. The agreement wad to be valid only after the examination and approval of the lands in Kansas. Among the signers were Captain William Anderson, Principal Chief of the Delaware Nation; Captain Patterson, Second Chief, Captain Pipe (the second of that name), Chief of the Ohio Delaware; and George Girty. (Ibid.) [See Delaware Treaties for the full text and all signers of the treaty. The above three entries are parts of the general transaction.]
19 October  - In camp at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, a delegation of six Delaware chiefs and warriors signed approval of the supplemental treaty after examining the proposed new reserve. This large tract of 960,000 acres was intended as the permanent home for the "whole Delaware Nation." This was the first and only move that really had Delaware approval. It was brought about principally through the persistence and diplomacy of Chief William Anderson. (Tregillis/Westlager)
November - Rev. Isaac McCoy returned to Washington where he witnessed and participated in a lengthy debate over Indian removal. Removal was opposed in the northeast and favored in the south and west. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 4)

28 May - President Andrew Jackson signed the controversial Indian Removal Act. The act provided "for the exchange of lands with Indians residing in any of the states or territories, and for their removal west of the Mississippi River." (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 173)
1 June - Richard W. Cummins was appointed Delaware and Shawnee Indian Agent, replacing George Vashon. Cummins, who was sympathetic to the Indians' interest, held the position for nineteen years. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 5)
28 July - The small bands of Piankashaw, Wea, and Peoria living in present Miami and Franklin counties wrote to William Clark complaining about the interference of the Osage in their lives. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 174)
7-16 August - At Agent Dougherty's request, at Cantonment Leavenworth, the head men of the Otoe, Omaha, Iowa, Sac, Delaware, Shawnee, and Kickapoo (of western Missouri) met at  and pledged amity and friendship. ("Dougherty Collection," in Kansas Historical Society ms. division, cited in Barry, (Ibid.)
1 August Reverend Isaac McCoy and party reached the Shawnee and Delaware agency, at the house of Major J. Campbell, on their mission to survey the boundary of the New Delaware Reserve. Kansas Historical Chronicles, XII, p. 66.)
24 August - Chief John Quick, with J. Connor the Delaware interpreter arrived in present Kansas to inspect and approve the reserve lands after making a brief tour with surveyor Isaac McCoy. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 178/Kansas Historical Chronicles, XII, p. 66.)
October - About 100 of the Delaware living on James' Fork of the White River in southwestern Missouri, led by their aged Principal Chief William Anderson, began the journey to a reserve north of the Kansas River, north of the Shawnee. (Ibid.)
Mid-November - Chief Anderson's party of Delaware had established a settlement in present Wyandotte County several miles west of the mouth of the Kansas River. (Ibid.)
1 December - Captain William Anderson and  61 other Delaware, two wagons and many horses, arrived in Kansas. They settled north of the Kansas River on the new Delaware Reserve. Anderson's Town was founded on the present site of Edwardsville, Kansas. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 5)
4 December - Agent Richard W. Cummins reported the arrival of the Delaware to General William Clark. He noted that thirty more families were expected within a few days and that others were preparing to come as soon as they could. Cummins estimated the number of Delaware at about 440 and noted that most of them were old men, women, and children. (Hancks/Pratt, pp. 178-179)

The Methodist Mission, under the direction of the Missouri Conference, was founded in 1831 under the direction of Reverend E. T. Peery, the first missionary, and his wife. (Cutler, History of the State of Kansas.)
The Methodist Episcopal Church in Missouri was the first to establish a mission among the Delaware. In 1831, Reverend Thomas Johnson built a log church in what is known as the White Church Community in Kansas City, Kansas. (Farley, p. 3)
13 January - Moses Grinter began operating a ferry across the Kansas River, presumably with an appointment from the government, near the present 78th Street and Kaw Drive in Kansas City, KS. The ferry provided the principal link between the Shawnee and the Delaware and a crossing point for Cantonment Leavenworth. (Hancks/Pratt, 6) The ferry was located three to four miles above, and across the river from, Chouteau's' trading post and the newly-founded Shawnee Methodist Mission, in what is now Wyandotte County.  This suggested an arrangement between Canton Leavenworth officials and the Delaware for travel through the latter's land, and transportation across the Kansas River. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, 181-182) Grinter was a young soldier who had lived previously at Bardstown, Kentucky. [He was probably born in the Russellville, Logan County area. Editor] He was discharged from the army, probably for the purpose of running the ferry. Grinter built a cabin on the north side of the ferry. The rope ferry was located in the northwest quarter of Section 28 Township 11, Range 29 in present Wyandotte County. The Grinter Ferry was also known as the "Lower Delaware Crossing, the "Military Ferry," or "Secondine Ferry." (Farley, p. 2)
After January - Delaware Henry Tiblow [a Shawnee Indian] established a ferry across the Kansas River near the abandoned Four Houses, about seven miles up the Kansas River from the Grinter Ferry on the site of present Bonner Springs. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 6)
February - The Mormons attempted to proselytize among the Delaware and were courteously received by Captain William Anderson (usually hostile to missionaries). They were ordered out of Indian Country by Agent Cummins. (Ibid.)
14 February - Reverend W. D. Smith described the ferry as "a tolerably good ferry, at which the mail crosses once every week going and returning between the Shawnee Agency and the Cantonment Leavenworth. James C., Grinter, his brother, is said to have assisted Moses Grinter as a ferryman from late 1849 to about 1855. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 182. See that entry for more data on the ferry. )
8 August - The 400 Shawnee remaining  in Ohio at Wapaughkonetta and Hog Creek signed a treaty with Special Commissioner James B. Gardiner and Indian Agent John McElvain to agree to move to Kansas. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 6)
15 August - Captain Pipe and William Monture conveyed messages from the Delaware in Kansas to the Wyandot Tribal Council in Ohio and described the land set aside for the resettlement of the Wyandot. (Ibid.)
2 September - Ira D. Blanchard arrived at the Shawnee Baptist Mission and proposed to go among the Delaware to study their language. (Pratt) Reverend Isaac McCoy and his associate Dr. Johnston Lykins later adopted his work and plans and hired him as a teacher. Farley, pp. 3-4)
Late September-Early October - Captain William Anderson, Principal Chief of the Delaware Nation, died at his home on the Delaware Reserve in present Wyandotte County.  For the past eleven months he had lived less than nine miles from his old enemy, the Shawnee Prophet. His successor was Captain Patterson. (Hancks/Pratt, 7) He may have died from smallpox. In a 22 September letter he mentioned his sons Captains Shounack (Shawannack), Pushkies, Secondyan, (Secondine), and Sarcoxy (Sarcoxie). (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 208)
Fall  - Captain Pipe, William Monture, Isaac Hill, and Solomon Journeycake left the Pipestown Reserve for Kansas with a party of about 30 Delaware. (They were supposed to have removed on or before 1 January1830). (Hancks/Pratt, 7) They spent the winter of 1831-1832 in Indiana. Presumably. they had arrived in Kansas in the spring or summer of 1832. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 22)
Fall - A Delaware hunting party on the plains was attacked by Pawnee. One woman escaped and made her way to a second Delaware party on the Arkansas River. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 7)
By October - The smallpox that had broken out with the Shawnee in mid-summer spread across the Kansas River to the Delaware, Agent Cummins advised them to scatter,  fifteen Delaware died before the epidemic subsided in December. The disease spread to the other Indian tribes as well. (It was reported in November that about a dozen Shawnee had died, but that the disease had subsided. It still existed among the Delaware, several of whom died. The total deaths in the Shawnee was nine and in the Delaware fifteen. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 207)
26 October - General William Clark at Castor Hill in St. Louis County, Missouri, signed a treaty with representatives of the Delaware then in Kansas and the Cape Girardeau Shawnee (the Black Bob band) then in Arkansas , giving up all claim to the Cape Girardeau grant. The U. S. Government gave to Captain Patterson, Captain Ketchum, and Na-Ko-Min annuities of $100 each for life. Most of the Cape Girardeau Delaware were then in Texas and apparently had no say in the matter. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 7.)
November - About a dozen Shawnee had died from smallpox, but the disease had subsided. It still existed among the Delaware and many died
End of 1831 - Chief William Anderson led the main body of the Delaware Tribe to their new (2 million acre) reservation in Kansas. (Smithsonian, p. 224; A Lesson in Administrative Termination, p.124)

The Baptist Mission commenced under the supervision of Dr. Johnston Lykins. (Cutler, Cutler's History of the State of Kansas)
8 February - By a War Department order, all cantonments were directed to be called forts. Accordingly, Cantonment Leavenworth was re-designated Fort Leavenworth. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 210)
19 February - Rev. William Johnson located  a school for the Delaware near Andersonstown (present Edwardsville) on the Kansas River. (Ibid.)
1 March  - Agent Cummins wrote to General Clark that the Kansas Delaware were very desirous that the Delaware on the Arkansas and Red Rivers join them. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 7)
March - The Pawnee killed Chief Pushkies [The Cat] and two other Delaware in an attack on their hunting party. (Hancks/Pratt, 8) The party also contained Shawanock (a brother of Pushkies) and some Shawnee. They were on land claimed by the Shawnee. One of those killed was a woman, and another Delaware was wounded. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 211)
24 April - General Clark [Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis]  reported to Secretary of War Cass that Agent Cummins had warned the Delaware in October against hunting in Pawnee country. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 8)
29 April - Superintendent William Clark's records show a payment of $25 for a "horse furnished Captain Pipe, a Delaware chief." (Barry, Winning of the West, p. 225)
Spring  - Permanent buildings were erected for the Shawnee and Delaware Indian Agency on the Shawnee Reserve. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 8)
15 May - Superintendent William Clark's records show a payment of $10 to "Moonshine" to "defray expenses" of some Delaware "on their way to Kansas river." (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 225)
Late Spring or Summer - After wintering in Indiana, the last Delaware moved to the Kansas Reserve. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 8)
4 June - Superintendent William Clark's records show a payment of $15 to George Ketchum  [a Delaware], to defray expenses on their way to Kansas. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 225)
24 June - A Delaware war party, led by Captain Suwaunock, attacked and burned the principal Pawnee village on the Republican River when they found that the Pawnee were not there. (Pratt) The Pawnee claimed that the Delaware were trespassing on their land between the Platte and Kansas Rivers. (K&K)
4 July - A party of Seneca from the Sandusky River, Ohio, reached their new reserve of about 67,000 acres west of the southwestern corner of Missouri, adjoining Cherokee lands. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 216)
9 July - Congress created the Office of Commissioner of Indian Affairs under the Secretary of War. Elbert Herring was the first Commissioner. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 217)
17 September - The Methodist Episcopal Church transferred the Rev. William Johnson from the Kansa to the Delaware. The Revs. Thomas B. Markham and  William Johnson subsequently founded the Delaware Methodist Mission. It was initially located somewhere between Anderson's Town and the Grinter Ferry. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 9)
20 September - The Wapaughkonetta Band of Shawnee (including 16-year-old Charles Bluejacket)  migrated from Auglaize County, Ohio to Kansas. They suffered considerably from the cold and from hunger. (Ibid.)
24 September - The Rev. Isaac McCoy returned from a trip to Arkansas to find Rev. Charles E. Wilson settled among the Delaware. McCoy was displeased that the other Baptist missionaries in Kansas were not consulted. (Ibid.)
30 September - For the year ending this date, at the Delaware-Shawnee Agency were the following persons: Richard W. Cummins (agent), John Campbell (subagent); Anthony Shane, James Connor, and Baptiste Peoria (interpreters); Harmon Davis, James Pool, Robert Dunlap, and Lewis Jones  (gun and blacksmiths). Davis Hardin (Harmon Davis?) and James Pool were paid for labor for completing agents' and blacksmiths' building. This agency also included the Wea, Peoria, Piankashaw, and Kickapoo. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 221)
30 September - As late as this date, Superintendent William Clark's records show payments to various persons supplying provisions to small parties of "emigrating Shawnees, Delawares, Kickapoos, and Kaskaskias." (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 225)
26 October - Treaty between the United States and the Delaware.
13 December - The Rev. Charles E. Wilson left the Delaware Reserve to go to the Choctaw. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 9)

Robert Dunlap was the government blacksmith for the Delaware. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 211)
5 February - Agent R. W. Cummins wrote to Superintendent William Clark about property lost by Delaware Chief Captain Pipe, William Monture, Isaac Hill, and Solomon Jonnicake (later Journeycake) while their party of about 30 persons was en route from the Little Sandusky River, Ohio to present Kansas. These men were among the last to emigrate to the west. Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 255)
12 February -  The Rev. Isaac McCoy noted that Ira D. Blanchard has "pretty thoroughly acquired" the Delaware language. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 9)
23-26 February  - Dr. Johnston Lykins and Daniel French visited the Delaware chiefs to discuss the formal establishment of a Baptist mission and school. (Ibid.)
23-25 February - Following a three-day visit by Baptists Johnston Lykins and Daniel French among the Delaware, the missionaries of "Shawanoe" Baptist Mission began regular preaching trips to [Delaware] Chief Nah-ko-min's village--the most remote of the Delaware settlements--over ten miles from "Shawanoe" (and across the Kansas River--near present Edwardsville, Wyandotte County. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 225)
April  - A school was started at the Baptist Mission with G. D. Blanchard as the teacher. (Cutler)
30 March - Sup't William Clark, St. Louis, was notified (by the comm'r of Indian affairs) that his office would receive the following funds for the Delawares formerly of Missouri (per October 26, 1832, treaty terms): To purchase stock and open farms--$3,000; to "pay a person to attend their mill, and for repairs for same for 1833"--$500 (and Clark was instructed to take measures to establish the school  and select a teacher); for merchandise--$5,000; for payment of some Delaware debts (money owed to traders William Gillis and William Marshall)--$12,000; annuities if $100 each for Delaware chiefs Patterson, Tah-whee-la-len (or, Ketchum), and "Nea-coming" (Nah-ko-min; Nat-coming, etc.)--$300. Kappler, Treaties, vol. 12, pp 370-372)
3 April  - Isaac McCoy wrote that they had made an arrangement  with Mr. Blanchard to remain with the Delaware. Ira D. Blanchard had been living with the Delaware for more than a year, learning their language. On 21 April he was baptized at the "Shawanoe" Baptist Mission." (Ibid.)
21 May - Some 375 Kickapoo and 119 Pottawatomie  attached to the Prophet's band, reached the new Kickapoo reserve north of the Delaware land after an overland trip from southwestern Missouri. They were led by James Kennedy. Superintendent William Clark had estimated the Kickapoo and attached Potawatomie in Illinois and Missouri at about 650 persons--the Prophet's band of 352 including 110 Pottawatomie), on the Vermillion River, Illinois; and Kislko's band of about 300 on the Kickapoo reserve in southwest Missouri. Kenneku (the prophet) and his followers departed Illinois in the fall of 1832, attending the Castor Hill, Missouri treaties of late October as a body. After the treaty they were conducted by John McCausland to the Kickapoo Reserve in Missouri, to spend the winter of 1832-1833 there.  Through various difficulties, (the Kickapoo were not happy with the situation on their new reserve. A visiting Presbyterian minister, Rev. W. D. Smith said in a 29 July letter, "They are not yet settled ... They live at present in the only unhealthy place I have seen in the [Indian] country. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 234)
By 1 June - The Hog Creek Band of Shawnee, led by interpreter Joseph Parks, moved from Ohio to Kansas. They were the last Shawnee to make the move. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 9)
June - The U.S. Government employed Michael Rice to build a saw and grist mill for the Delaware near the mouth of present Mill Creek, less than a mile east of the Grinter ferry. Miller William Barnes had the mill in operation by July. (Hancks/Pratt, 9) It was the first such mill in present Kansas. It was in operation by at least 29 July. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 239)
24 June - Isaac McCoy reported that "Shawanuk [a young chief]...& 22 others started from Delaware Town on a War excursion against the Pawnees last summer or fall. The party passed through the Kanza villages, the latter were to join them in the expedition." When they reached the Platte in July?, they found the Grand Pawnee village deserted, whereupon they burned the town and the nearby fields of crops. The Pawnee subsequently rebuilt their village in the fall. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 237)
11 August - Sixteen-year-old Charles Journeycake was baptized by Dr. Johnston at the Shawnee Baptist Mission. His mother, Sarah "Sally" Williams Journeycake, a Delaware by marriage, was one of the few Christians among the Delaware and had been serving as interpreter of the mission. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 10)
4 September - Reverend Thomas Johnson returned as the superintendent of the Indian Mission District, the Reverend William Johnson was assigned to the Shawnee Methodist Mission, and the Reverend Edward T. Peery was assigned to the Delaware. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 10)
30 September - To this date, expenditures paid out for the Delaware mill were: $2,975.50 to Michael Rice for the building of the mill and bolt; and for repairs; $10 to James and Robert Aull for the saw; and, $32 to Edward Blanchard and $6 to William Barnes for "attending" the mill.  (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 239)
30 September - For the year ending this date, the following persons were employed by the Shawnee-Delaware Agency: Richard W. Cummins (agent); John Campbell (subagent); Anthony Shane, James Connor, and Baptiste Peoria (interpreters); Robert Dunlap (gun and blacksmith for the Delaware); Lewis Jones (gun and blacksmith for the Shawnee). Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 245)
1 October - William Barnes was appointed miller of the Delaware saw and grist mill at a  salary of $500 per year. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 239)
1 October - John Campbell was replaced as sub-agent for the Shawnee and Delaware Agency by Dr. F. W. Miller. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 10)
Fall - Reverend Edward T. Peery was assigned to the Delaware Methodist Mission, but he might not have arrived until later in the year. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 210)
9 October - Agent R. W. Cummins issued trading licenses to John O. Agnew and to J. H. Flournoy & Co These permitted them to trade with the Delaware, Kickapoo, and the Kansa at a specific location within each of the three Indian reserves. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 247)
25 October - Trading licenses issued to the Chouteau's American Fur Company included a new post on the Delaware Reserve near the Grinter Ferry. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 10)
28 October - Alexander G.  Morgan (subtler and postmaster at Fort Leavenworth) was issued three Indian trading licenses issued by Superintendent William Clark at St. Louis. They permitted him and an associate to trade with the Kickapoo, the Kansa, and the Delaware. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 249)
8 November - At the Indian Peace Council called by Commissioner Henry Ellsworth at Fort Leavenworth, some 100 Pawnee, Otoe, and Omaha met delegates from the immigrant nations of the Delaware, Shawnee, Kickapoo, Pottawatomie. Ottawa, Wea, Peoria, and Kaskaskia. The Kansa arrived on the 14th. Also present were Baptist missionaries Johnston Lykins and Jotham Meeker on 8 and 9 November and Methodists Thomas Johnson and Jerome Berryman for some sessions. Patterson, Nahkomin, Nonondoqumoom, Shawanock, and Long House signed for the Delaware. [See DELAWARE TREATIES for details, signers, witnesses, etc.] (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 251)

The Delaware Methodist Mission had 40 church members, the school had 24 Indian children, and the Sabbath school 14 male and 10 female scholars, conducted by three teachers and a superintendent. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 11)
6 February - Ira D. Blanchard and Rev. Isaac  McCoy were given permission by Delaware Chief Na-ko-min for Blanchard to build a house on the reserve. It was built in the spring and early summer. Negotiations for the establishment of a Baptist mission continued.  (Barry, The Beginning of the West, 226)
21 March - Ira D. Blanchard wrote and J. Meeker printed at the Shawnee Mission in 1834 Linapie Lrkvekun Apwivuli Kavuni Wato (The Delaware Primer and First Book, the first book printed in Kansas. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 259)
1 April - Reverend Henry Rennick, Jr., a Cumberland Presbyterian minister, was assigned as U.S. Government teacher to the Delaware. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 11)
20 May - An appendix to a 20 May report (H. R. No. 474) of the 23d Cong., 1st Sess.) house committee on Indian affairs included tables of Indians living west of the Mississippi River:



Office of Indian Affairs

U. S. Commissioner





about 5,510




about 75

Peoria & Kaskaskia




*Wea & Piankashaw







of Kansas River 750








800 [emphasis added]









* From one-third to one-half of the Osage were in present Oklahoma. Fewer than 100 Ottawa were in present Kansas. Of the 405 Wea & Piankashaw under the U. S. Commissioner total, 220 were Wea and 185 were Piankashaw. The figure for the Kickapoo would have to include the approximately 110 of Pottawatomie of the Prophet's band. (23rd Cong., 1sr Sess., H. R. No. 474 (Serial 263), 39, 87; Isaac McCoy's Annual Register.... 1835, 5, 16, cited in Barry,  The Beginning of the West, p. 268)
30 June  - The part of the Unorganized Territory lying west of the Missouri and Arkansas between the Platte River on the north and the Red River on the south was officially designated "Indian Country." The Indian Country was placed under Missouri's administrative jurisdiction. (Hancks/Pratt, 11)One statute regulated trade with the Indian tribes. while another organized the Department of Indian Affairs within the War Department.
14 July - The Northern Agency, Western Territory, replaced the Shawnee and Delaware Agency.  That agency served the Delaware, Kansa, and Kickapoo. Richard W. Cummins continued as agent. The agency continued to occupy the Shawnee and Delaware Agency buildings on the Shawnee Reserve. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 11)
28 July - The Rev. Meeker reported that Ira D. Blanchard had set up housekeeping alone in his new house on the Delaware Reserve. (Ibid.)
July or August - Ottawa chief Oquanoxa and his small band of 75 persons, left the Shawnee Reserve--where they had lived since coming to present Kansas in November, 1832, from Ohio--and moved to their own reservation (south of the Shawnee and west of the Peoria and Kaskaskia, in present Franklin County. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 274)
7 August - Pratte, Choteau & Company received licenses to trade with the Kickapoo, Delaware, and Kansa. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 275)
9 August - Pratte, Choteau & Company were given licenses to trade with the Wea, etc., and Shawnee. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 275)
13-23 October - The immigrant Indians of "Kansas" were paid their annuity funds at Fort Leavenworth under the 30 June 1834 act regulating the Indian Department: The annuity payments were: Delaware on 16 October $6,500. Also $100 each to chiefs Patterson, Nahkomin. and Ketchum. The Shawnee received $3,000. Other tribes are listed. (23d Cong., 2d Sess., H. Doc. No. 150 (Serial 274, 71, cited in Barry, The Beginning of the West,, p. 279)

The Provisional Government of Texas pledged to honor the land claims of Indian Tribes, including the Absentee Delaware.
17 January - Rev. Meeker completed the printing of the first volume of Rev. Isaac McCoy's  The Annual Register of Indian Affairs. Hancks/Pratt, p. 11)
5 February - Agent Cummins and the Delaware chiefs gave permission for the construction of a Delaware Baptist Mission school. Ira D. Blanchard returned to the East. (Ibid.)
10 March - The Baptist Board of Foreign Missions appropriated $500 for the construction of the Delaware Baptist Mission consisting of two houses and a school. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 12)
March - The Shawnee and Ottawa Sub-Agency was discontinued. The tribes were assigned to Richard Cummin's Northern Agency. (Ibid.)
29 May - Col. Henry Dodge and three (First) dragoon companies (a total party  of 125, with four Delaware as hunters), departed Fort Leavenworth. They headed northward to the Platte River, on the first leg of a circuit tour up that river and its South Fork as far as the Rocky Mountains, and then back by way of the Arkansas River and the Santa Fe Trail. John Gantt was the guide for the expedition. Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 289)
June - Ira D. Blanchard returned to the Delaware Reserve from the east with his bride, Mary Walton, a missionary teacher, and with a second teacher, Sylvia Case. (Hancks/Pratt, 12) The Blanchards and Miss Case were missionaries for some twelve years thereafter and conducted a boarding (manual labor) school for as long as the mission was at the Edwardsville site. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 226)
Summer - A Delaware hunting party killed 12 Pawnees caught stealing horses. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 12)
10 September - A second house and a school building were under contract for completion at the Delaware Baptist Mission near Anderson's Town. Reverend Thomas Johnson was returned as superintendent of the Indian Mission District and Rev. Edward T. Perry was returned to the Delaware. (Ibid.)
2 November - The beginning of the Seminole War that was soon to involve the participation of the Delaware and other tribes. (Ibid.)
2 December - A group of 252 Pottawatomie (with Ottawa and Chippewa united with them) from Lake Michigan, under the guidance of Capt. B. F. Russell, arrived at the Little Platte River country (across the Missouri River from Fort Leavenworth, and from the Kickapoo Reserve--where 454 Pottawatomie already were living. About 460 Pottawatomie from that company of immigrants spent the winter of 1835-1836 on the Skunk River, in southeastern "Iowa." The destination of all those Indians was a reserve in southwestern Iowa, which had been assigned under the Chicago Treaty of 26 September 1833. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 297.
9 December - Captain Patterson's death was reported by Isaac McCoy. His death was sometime prior to 22 July 1835, however. He was the Principal Chief of the Delaware Nation. His successor was Nak-ko-min. (McCoy's Annual Register...1836, pp. 24, 28-31)
26 December - The Delaware Baptist Mission opened with 14 boys as pupils, and Ira D. Blanchard, his wife Mary Walton Blanchard, and Sylvia Case as teachers. (Hancks/Pratt, 13) In the 1840's, they had a native assistant, Charles Johnnycake (Journeycake). (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 226)
29 December - The Cherokee Indians in a treaty with the United States made at New Echota, Ga., relinquished claim to all lands east of the Mississippi River and agreed to to remove, within two years, to the 7,000,000-acre reservation west of the Arkansas Territory and Missouri guaranteed to them by the Treaty of 6 May 1828. (The later 1835 treaty provided an additional 800,000 acres.  (Barry, The Beginning of the West, pp. 298-299)
End of 1835 - Rev. Henry Rennick, Jr. was teaching 19 pupils at the Delaware Methodist Mission House . (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 260)

January - On the Delaware Reserve, Ferryman Moses Grinter married Anna Marshall, a 16-year old Delaware, the daughter of Indian Trader William Marshall. [Her mother was Betsy Wilaquenaho. Editor] They had ten children. The Grinter's land was on Sec. 20 and 21, T. 11, R. 24 E., in present Wyandotte Township. He died 12 June 1878 and she died 28 June 1905.  The U. S. Census 1870 listed Moses Grinter at 61, a native of Kentucky. and Anna 50 as a native of Indiana and a son William born in Kansas. (Barry, The Beginning of the West,  p. 300)
9 March - According to Senate Report 288, 24th Congress, 1st session, on the number and situation of Indians on the frontiers, about 30,000 Indians had been removed west of the Mississippi River, and some 72,000 were yet to be removed.  According to the report's "Census of Indian Tribes" and Isaac McCoy's Annual Register  for 1837 there were the following Indians in "Kansas." Of the two, McCoy is probably the more accurate:

Indigenous Tribes





about 1,606



about 5,510

Emigrant Tribes



Pottawatomie from Indiana








921  [emphasis added]



823 of Kansas River










Peoria and Kaskaskia



*One-third to one-half of the Osage were in "Oklahoma."
Spring - Native workmen employed by the Society of friends on a 320-acre tract leased from the Shawnee four miles west of Westport, Mo. began to erect three Shawnee Mission buildings. They were probably completed by summer. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, p. 304)
4 July - Carey A. Harris replaced Elbert Herring as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 14)
21 October - The chiefs and head men of the Delaware, Shawnee, Piankeshaw & Wea, and Peoria & Kaskaskia met in council with Agent Richard W. Cummins and signed an agreement giving their consent  to a road through their lands. (Barry, The Beginning of the West, pp. 315-316)
- The Shawnee Prophet, Tensquatawa, died at the age of 61. He was buried near White Feather Spring in present-day Kansas City, Kansas at the present 3818 Ruby Avenue. The young Charles Bluejacket is among those present. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 14)

President Sam Houston employed Delaware scouts to protect the frontier of the newly-established Republic of Texas.
The United Brethren (Moravian) Church established a mission to the Munsee and Delaware under the direction of Jesse Vogler. Two hundred and eight Munsee lived on the north bank of the Kansas River about eight miles above its mouth. The location of the mission building was near the present town of Muncie. (Farley, p. 4)
John G. Pratt went to the Shawnee Mission to take charge of the printing office, Later, he was the Superintendent of the Delaware Mission. He learned the Delaware language and printed books for the Delaware. (Cutler)
13 April - The Northern Agency, Western Territory was replaced by the Fort Leavenworth Indian Agency, serving the Shawnee, Delaware, Kansa, and Kickapoo. The agency remained on the Shawnee Reserve and Richard W. Cummins continued as its agent.  (Hancks/Pratt, p. 1)
July - General Jessup called for 1,000 western Indians to be employed against the Seminoles. Eighty-seven Delaware led by Captain Suaunock and Captain Moses were enlisted, together with a company of 85 Shawnee commanded by Captain Joseph Parks. Through an "error" they were promised $272 for six months' service rather than the customary $72. The error was discovered only after the volunteers embarked. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 16)
17 July - A group of Christian (Moravian or Munsee) Indians left their reserve on the Thames River in Upper Canada to emigrate to the Delaware Reserve in Indian Country. (Ibid.)
Early September - The Delaware and Shawnee volunteers against the Seminole departed Westport by steamboat for a camp south of St. Louis. (Ibid.)
8 October - Col. Stephen Watts Kearny. Capt. Nathan Boone, and Charles Dimmick, civil engineer, with Company H, 1st U.S., with the 1st U.S. Dragoons as escort, surveyed the route for the military road between Fort Leavenworth and the Arkansas River. They examined the route going south, then executed the route on the return trip. (Ibid.)
September - Rev. Learner B. Stateler replaced Rev. Edward T. Peery at the Delaware Methodist Mission. He later relocated the school. (Ibid.)
16 October - The Delaware and Shawnee volunteers trained near New Orleans.  (Ibid) [There were about 80 Kansas Delaware volunteers. Editor]
29 October - The Christian Indians from Canada arrived at Westport Landing with their Moravian missionary, Jesse Vogler. They settled in the present Muncie area of Kansas City, Kansas at the invitation of the Delaware. (Ibid.)
Early November - The Delaware and Shawnee volunteers against the Seminole reached Tampa and launched a three-pronged attack against the Seminole. The Delaware and the Shawnee were a part of a brigade commanded by Col. Zachary Taylor. (Hancks/Pratt, p.17)
22 November - Isaac McCoy informed General John Tipton that, "Here I enclose you a copy of the letter of the shawanoes on the subject of the Indian Bill. The same, and nearly in the same words was sent from the Delawares, Kickapoos, Putawatomies, sauks, Iowas, Kanzans, Ottawas, Peorias & Kaskaskias, Piankashas, and Weas. Each tribe signed a letter for itself--The Bill was considered in full council [of each tribe], and in some instances signed by the Chiefs in behalf of the Council, and in some instances some of the principal men also signed. (Tipton Papers, Vol. 2, p. 468)
15 December - Isaac McCoy informed General Tipton. "About 80 Delawares and about the same number of Shawanoes have been taken to the Florida war. This is an exceedingly impolitic, not to say cruel measure. To the Indians it appears in direct opposition to the peaceable measure of organizing a Territory, and they often cast it in my teeth. The inds. left this under the promise of $270. for six months service, but by a mistake it turns out to be only b$70. about 500 choctaws were mustered into service under the same promise of $270. But before they left Arkansas they were informed of the true sum, and every man returned to his home. (Tipton Papers, Vol. 2, p. 474-475)
25 December - Taylor's brigade successfully engaged the Seminole on high ground west of Lake Okeechobee [Florida], but they were forced to retreat. The actual losses on both sides were small. (Ibid.

By 1838 - There were 1,050 Delaware in Kansas under the jurisdiction of the Leavenworth Agency. By this time the small Sandusky group in Ohio and the Christian Munsee from the Thames River in Ontario, Canada had moved to Kansas. (Hancks/Pratt)
Immigrant tribes, including the Delaware, were forced to leave Texas under an expulsion order.
12 March
- The Delaware and Shawnee volunteers were assembled at Tampa Bay [Florida], They did not suffer a single casualty. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 17)
30 March  - The returned volunteers against the Seminole in Florida arrived in New Orleans, their enlistment having expired the previous day. (Ibid.)
18 April - In a speech to Congress, General Tipton said, in part, "The bill of the last session for organizing the Indian territory was submitted to the consideration of the eleven tribes, and was assented by them. These tribes are Delawares, Shawanoes, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Sauks of Missouri, Ioways, Weas. Piankashas, Peorias and Kaskaskia, Kansas, and Ottawas, every one of these tribes approved of the provisions of the bill;, and desired the Government to carry into effect without delay..." (Tipton Papers, Vol. 2, p. 612) Tipton gave the number of Delaware at that times as 921 persons. (Ibid., p. 595)
16 June - Licenses to trade with the Delaware, Kansa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee were issued to Albert G. Boone. William Miles Chick, Cyprien Chouteau, Charles Findlay, and Capt. Joseph Parks. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 18)
9 October - Reverend Learner B. Stateler was returned to the Delaware Methodist Mission. The construction of a new mission school began soon thereafter near the present 78th Street and Speaker Road in Kansas City, Kansas. (Ibid.)
18 October  - Reverend Thomas Johnson and Agent Cummins selected a site for the Shawnee Indian Manual Labor School, six miles south of the mouth of the Kansas River and a half-mile west of the Missouri state line. Cummins reported that the Shawnee had given their approval for the school and that Johnson had agreed to discontinue the existing mission. (Ibid.) [Delaware students later attended the school.]
22 October - T. Hartley Crawford replaced Carey A. Harris as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. (Ibid.)
Fall 1838 - A second group of about 138 Munsee arrived at the Delaware Reserve. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 9)

Some Delaware were forced to moved from Texas to south-central Oklahoma.
24 March - The last Cherokee removal party arrived in Indian territory [present Oklahoma]. The forced marches and the detention camps caused the deaths of 4,000 individuals out of 16,000. (Hancks/Pratt, 19)
2 October - Rev. Learner B. Stateler was returned to the Delaware. (Ibid.)
29 Oct. 1839 - The school opened at the West Building of the Shawnee Indian Manual Labor School. (Ibid.)

27 Jan. 1840 - The Delaware chiefs, through Agent Cummins, informed the government that they examined the Shawnee Indian Manual Labor School and that they wished their the interest from their school funds to be divided, with $1,000 for the purchase of agricultural implements and the remainder to be used to send their children to the new school. (Hancks/Pratt, p. 20)
By February - Sixty Indian children were enrolled at the Shawnee Indian Manual Labor School. Others were turned away because of the lack of space. (Ibid.)
3 July Rev. Thomas Johnson dedicated a hewed-log meeting house at the Delaware Methodist Mission near the present-day 2200 North 85th Street in Kansas City, Kansas. A cemetery was established northwest of the church soon thereafter. (Ibid.)
29 September - Rev. Thomas Johnson was returned as the superintendent of the Indian Mission District and David Kinnear was placed in charge of the manual labor school. (Ibid.)

Copy 7 May 2002. Times New Roman 12 point. Photo check A.TH                                                                                                       


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