Saw two Buffaloes early-did not stop to look after them. Saw a
village of prarie dogs. Saw antelopes. In the evening saw five
Buffaloes-wounded two, but had not time to follow them. Travelling
in a small part of the country which had not been burnt, we were
stopped by the fire. We set fire in self-defence, but had barely
time to get our horses on to the small place we had burned in time
to escape disaster from the approaching fires. For a while we were
surrounded by flame, tho. not near enough to injure us, and
enveloped in smoke. Encamped on a water of Solomon.
Friday Nov. 5.
Completed the line of the outlet to 150 miles, and stopped. For some
days we have discovered that our horses were failing so fast, that
we must soon return, or lose them all. We have therefore risen
before day & made extraordinary efforts to accomplish as much as
possible while the horses could live. We are sure that we ought not
to proceed further, and hope to get our horses back. We are beyond
all Indian villages, and 50 miles, or more, into the country of
Bufaloes Fired on a flock of Antelopes. Passed another Village of Prarie
dogs. I fired on one, anxious to examine him, but he disappeared in
After we completed our survey, we turned on to a creek, and were
looking for an encampment-the day calm & fair-when suddenly the
atmosphere became darkened by a cloud of dust and ashes from the
recently burnt Praries occasioned by a sudden wind from the north.
It was not three minutes after I had first discovered its approach,
before the sun was concealed, and the darkness so great, that I
could not distinguish objects more than three or four times the
length of my horse. The dust, sand, & ashes, were so dense that one
appeared in danger of suffocation. The wind driving into ones eys
seemed like destroying them.
KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
I was more
than a quarter of a mile from the pack-horses, with three men, only
one of whom was immediately with me, when the storm commenced. Had I
not feared that Calvin, with the horses and company, would continue
to travel to reach me, and lose himself, I should have sought a low
place and concealed my face until the storm had somewhat abated. I
led on my horse, having the man who was with me to whip him on,
sought the bank of the creek on which I had left the horses and
proceeded on it until I reached them. Calvin had prudently halted in
a low place, and was waiting for the abatement of the storm. We had
great difficulty in making ourselves tolerably comfortable. One tent
was prostrated after it was pitched. Mine could scarcely be made to
withstand the wind, by tieing to trees.
The Doctor had taken three men and gone to examine some mineral
hills. They sheltered for a while beneath a bank -of the creek and
about dusk reached our camp.
The storm commenced sun three quarters of an hour high in the
evening, and blew tremendously all night. It had abated a little by
morning. The dust was most annoying at the commencement. There was
no clouds over us.
The termination of our line was about four miles north of Solomon
river, in a district remarkable for minerals. Since we came into the
vicinity of Republican, or Pawnee river, wood has been more scarce
than previously. The creeks, however, are all wooded. Fuel would be
sufficient for a considerable population-chiefly Elm, cottonwood, &
willow near the rivers- farther from the rivers is more wood on the
creeks, and of different kinds.
Some of the country between Pawnee & Solomon is of limestone
character though stone scarce generally-assuming more & more of a
level character as we proceed westward- Soil generally good -some
rich-other of 2d. quality. Water not so plenty nor so good as east
of Pawnee. We stopped 210 miles west of the State of Missouri. The country is
habitable thus far.
Saturday Nov. 6.
After a severe night, on us & our horses, which in addition to the
wind and cold, were almost perishing with hunger, we set off as
early as possible-the day freezing cold, and the wind excessive.
Killed a poor Buffaloe on Solomon. Took a part of it. Searched much
for grass. Travelled about 12 miles, and encamped on the north side
of Solomon. Found a little spot not
EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830
miserable, yet better than we have had for a while. Passed some very
large encamping places of Indians some made the last summer, and
others longer ago. Many buffaloe sculs were placed together at one
Sunday Nov. 7.
Remain in camp. Solomon is here about 70 yards wide, now lowwater at
present, where the current is brisk, say 25 yards, shallow on
ripples. Water transparent.-its shores, or rather sand beaches
whitened with a deposit of salt, and in places, glauber salts.
Glauber salts are deposited on the sand beaches of Pawnee river, &
on the banks of [blank in MS.] creek where we terminated our survey.
About half a mile above our camp is a salt spring which is a great
natural curiosity. (See description on other side)  Fresh horse
track seen, either Indians, or a wild horse is near.
Monday Nov. 8.
We started early, & travelled till a half past three
oclock--Encamped on the south side of Solomon, poor grass. Killed a
Deer. Passed where Indians had been encamped hunting &
trapping,-about 3, or 4 miles from where we had spent the two last
nights. They had left there yesterday or early this morning--went
towards Panee river. They had probably discovered us. Passed many
old and large camps. Much sign of Bufaloe.
We had proceeded about four miles a little east of S. east, when we
again came into a limestone country.
Tuesday Nov. 9.
Made about 22 miles and encamped near Solomon, crossed a little of
running water, which was salt. Killed a deer, & Badger.
KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Nov. 10. Traveled east about nine miles, and then ten miles E.S.E. Encamped
on a water of Solomon (as supposed) Killed two deer & a badger. No
limestone for 12 miles back-occasionally mounds & hill sides of iron
looking sand stone. Soil good, for a few miles back resting upon
sand of white & red colour, so that banks resembled an old lime
Thursday Nov. 11.
So foggy that we could not see from one end of the line of company
to the other. Set pocket compass, my son before, and I in the rear
would observe the variation from the true course by the bend of our
line. Often stopped to notice the compass. Finding this troublesome,
and that the wind blew pretty constantly the same direction, I tied
a ribbond to the end of my riding stick, and guided by the direction
of the flag proceeded east until after noon, then bore southeast
down Nishcoba-or Deep water.  Fell in with a flock of about 70
Elks. Killed three, and encamped on Deepwater.
Friday Nov. 12.
Travelled Southeastwardly down Nishcoba, and encamped on its south
bank. We had intended to have travelled east from Solomon, until we
fell in with Panie river, & made two attempts, but found that we
should be thrown on to the smaller branches of streams, where we
could find less food for our horses. Saw many elks. Killed a deer.
Four Kanzas came to our camp & remained thro the night.
Saturday Nov. 13.
Last night we had rain. The country here is moist, and consequently
more pleasant to us, & better for the horses. Left Deepwater
travelled east-reached Panee river about one proceeded down it east,
and encamped on the point near the Junction of Panee & Smokey hill
rivers. A horse tired and was left behind. Five Kanzas came to us
and spent the night. Almost every place burnt over. Little food for
Sunday Nov. 14.
Remain in camp. Found & brot. in the tired horse. Put our horses on
to the south side of Smokyhill river, where we found a spot of
bottom land not burnt. An old Kanza came to camp, & staid most of
Monday Nov. 15.
Crossed Republican river, & proceeded down Kanza on the north side.
Two Indians, one an old man; overtook us running, in high state of
perspiration, said a great company, returning from their Buffaloe
hunt, had come to our camp since we
EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830
these two had run after us (some three or four miles) to speak to
us, & to get a little tobacco. We gave them some, & left them. A
horse tired. Left two men to bring him on, who reached camp before
dark. Encamped near Kanza river.
Tuesday Nov. 16.
Branded our tired horse with a stirrip iron, and left him at camp.
Encamped on Black paint creek, near an encampment of Indians, one of
whom I hired to go and bring on, if he could, the tired horse to the
Wednesday Nov. 17.
Met several Kanza hunters-give all we meet a little tobacco.
Encamped on Kageshingah, on crossing crk.
Thursday Nov. 18.
Encamped on a small creek near Kanza river.
Friday Nov. 19.
Reached the Kanza agency. Obtained corn for our hungry and poor
horses- spoke to Clark, the Agent respecting a school, &c. for the
Kanzas- Made no definite arrangement. Clark promised to receive the
Saturday Nov. 20.
Messrs. McCallister & Johnson, Methodist preachers, arrived last
night. They purpose establishing a school &c. among the Kanzas.
They, or, some others of that society had been here previously. I
knew nothing of their intentions until since I spoke to Clark
yesterday. They have, also, a few days since, made proposals to the
Shawanoes to furnish them with a school, &c. I told them that our
Society had made formal proposals to the Sec. War, a year and a half
ago, to establish a mission among the Kanzas. Also, that I had
spoken to the Shawanoes on my way up, & expected to receive their
answer on my way down. But, I wished not to throw any obstacle in
their way. They united in supposing there would be no disagreeing
between them and us-manifested no solicitude about our propositions,
and spake with a good deal of confidence relative to carrying
forward their propositions. I think they will not likely do much for
the Kanzas. Their circumstances are such as to require the exercise
of faith & patient perseverance, in labourious, and often
discouraging operations, rather beyond what we can expect from that
KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
I left the
Doctor to bring on the horses and company generally by way of the
garrison, where we have business, after he shall have rested and
recruited the horses two or three days, and Calvin & I set out by
way of Shawanoe Agency, taking two of the stronger of our horses. We
had rain-no tent-fixed up a blanket, which partially sheltered us.
No grass for our horses-had corn brot. with us from the agency.
Sunday Nov. 21.
Passed the new settlement forming by the Delawares on their land.
Spent a few minutes with Anderson, their aged principal Chief. He,
and his people are much pleased with their new country, as he
declared to me. Govt. has not assisted in removal. They, anxious to
come set out upon their own resources. Most of the tribe have either
arrived, or are on the road. All will be here in the Spring. There
is much difficulty, and some scolding among the agents, &
superintendent, &c. about furnishing the Delawares. Some hopes had
been entertained of profitable business in removing them, that are
disappointed, now the Indians have removed themselves. Govt. has not
furnished provisions, except to a very small amount, and nothing
will be done by the Sec. War, or the superintendent until I make my
report, and an appropriation be made by Congress for expenses of
Monday Nov. 22.
Agreeably to my promise gave notice to the Shawanoes that as they
recollected what had passed as we went out, and as I had then
promised to call on them on my return, I had done so-because I was
the same man every day. If they had any thing to say to me, I was
there ready to hear. Only Cornstalk & Perry were present-the others
were absent from their villages. They replied that, since I had passed Mr. Johnson-(the Methodist)
had offered them a school, &c. They had answered him, that schools
had been offered them repeatedly. They could not accept all-for
there would not be room for them. They had been pleased with the
talk I had given them relative to the manner of conducting schools,
&c. and I had long been experienced in Indian matters, and they had
therefore determined to accept of my offer. (This was not the time
that the agent, Cummins, spoke to them for the Methodists, to whom
they gave a similar answer.) They then said to me we are pleased
with your views of the subject, and with your proposition, and
cannot do otherwise than accept your offer- We do now accept it, &
that matter is settled. 
EXPLORING EXPEDITION OF 1830 377
Campbell, the subagent-in whose house we were, and who is my
particular friend on this business, was transported with gladness
that these two Chiefs had so cordially agreed to have a school, &c.
Fish, and others were known to be friendly, and no unwillingness had
been feared except from these two Chiefs. Campbell gave them his
hand, and a present. I must now look out for missionaries & means,
to build up affairs here, as soon as possible. May the Lord provide!
Sister Shane is sick-thinks she will not live long-has lately been
very unwell,-wept freely when I conversed with her-said in her
severe illness, she desired greatly to see me once more in the
world, and now her requests had been granted. She did not fear to
die, &c. Sick as she was she manifested a laudable solicitude for
the establishing of a mission among the Shawanoes.
I made myself acquainted with the agency difficulties relative to
the removal, and the provisioning of the Delawares, and promised to
be the friend of Campbell on this, and some other Indian matters,
when I should go to Washington. I also promised to attend to some of
Shane's requests. Left Campbell's at 2 o'clock P. M. and lodged in
at 8 o'clock P. M. slept at Young's-
slept at Davis', and on
Thursday, Nov. 25.
at 8 o'clock P.M. entered the dear circle of my family. For favours
to them, and to us who have been absent, let me again erect an
Ebenezer. I was absent One hundred and two days.
1. For a brief history of
the founding of Carey mission, see The Kansas Historical
Quarterly, May, 1936. McCoy's journal entries covering his tour
of 1828 may be found in the Quarterly for August, 1936.
2. McCoy, Isaac, History of Baptist Indian Missions (Washington,
1840), p. 871.
3. Paragraph 1, supplementary article ratified March, 1831, to the
Delaware treaty concluded at St. Mary's, in the State of Ohio, on
the 3d of October, 1818: "Whereas the foregoing treaty stipulates
that the United States shall provide for the Delaware nation, a
country to reside in, west of the Mississippi, as the permanent
residence of their nation; and whereas the said Delaware nation, are
now willing to remove, on the following conditions, from the country
on James's fork of White river in the State of Missouri, to the
country selected in the fork of the Kansas and Missouri river, as
recommended by the government, for the permanent residence of the
whole Delaware nation; it is hereby agreed upon by the parties, that
the country in the fork of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, extending
up the Kansas river, to the Kansas line, and up the Missouri river
to Camp Leavenworth, and thence by a line drawn westwardly, leaving
a space ten miles wide north of the Kansas boundary line, for an
outlet; shall be conveyed and forever secured by the United States,
to the said Delaware nation, as their permanent residence: And the
United States hereby pledges the faith of the government to
guarantee to the said Delaware nation forever, the quiet and
peaceable possession and undisturbed enjoyment of the same, against
the claims and assaults of all and every other people whatever. "--Treaties
Between the United States of America and the Several Indian Tribes,
1778-1837 (Washington, 1837), p. 444.
4. See footnote No. 28.
5. "Indian Removal," 23d Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 512, v.2, p. 5.
6. Rice McCoy, eldest son of Isaac McCoy. In his History of Baptist
Indian Missions (Washington, 1840), Isaac McCoy wrote, regarding his
son's participation in the tour: "From the time of our reaching
Fayette, my eldest son had been employed in the practice of
medicine, and his prospects were flattering, but he cheerfully
consented to gratify my desire to see him labouring in some manner
in the Indian country, and took an appointment as assistant
7. In March of 1827 Col. Henry Leavenworth was ordered by the War
Department to select a site for a cantonment on the left bank of the
Missouri river, near the mouth of the Little Platte river. Colonel
Leavenworth, however, upon examination of the site suggested, did
not find it favorable and chose instead a location on the right bank
of the Missouri river. This choice was approved and the post was
officially designated Cantonment Leavenworth by Department Order No.
56, of 1827. The primary purpose in stationing troops at this point
was for protection of the rapidly increasing trade over the Santa Fe
trail. Fort Leavenworth (official designation under Department Order
No. 11 1832) figures prominently in the history of the West and the
military history of the United States.
8. Near present Glasgow in Howard county, Missouri. The following
notice appeared in Niles Register, v. 17 (1819-1820), p. 30:
"Chariton, a new town somewhere in Missouri, containing about eighty
houses, and several brick buildings are now erecting. A year ago
there were only 'five or six unchined cabins' on the town plot."
9. William Clark, U. S. Indian superintendent at St. Louis.
10. The agency was located on the E. 1/2 of the S. E. 1/4 of Section
10, and the W. 1/2 of the S. W. 1/4 of Section 11, Township 12,
Range 25, in present Johnson county, Kansas.
11. In his abstract of disbursements for the tour, McCoy gave the
name of the express as J. Cohon.-"Indian Removals, 23d Cong.,
1st sess., S. Doc. 512, v. 5, p. 229.
12. Shawnee medicine-man, Tenskwatawa, known as the Prophet,
commander of the Indian forces at the battle of Tippecanoe He
removed from Cape Girardeau county, Missouri, to the Shawnee
reservation in present Kansas in 1828 and located a town known as
Prophet Town in what is now Shawnee township, Wyandotte county. For
an account of his death, November, 1837, see Kansas Historical
Collections, v. 9, p. 164, footnote.
13. S. H. Cone, Baptist minister of New York, loyal friend and
supporter of Isaac McCoy.
14. White Plume, Kansas Chief. See Kansas Historical Collections,
v. 9, pp. 194-196. 15. Article 1 of the treaty made and concluded at
St. Louis, Mo., June 3, 1825, between William Clark, superintendent
of Indian Affairs, commissioner on te part of the United States, and
representatives of the Kansas was as follows: "The Kanzas do hereby
cede to the United States all the lands lying within the State of
Missouri, to which the said nation have title or claim; and do
further cede and relinquish, to the said United States all other
lands which they now occupy, or to which they have title or claim,
lying west of the said State of Missouri and within the following
boundaries: Beginning at the entrance of the Kanzas river into the
Missouri river; from thence north to the northwest corner of the
State of Missouri; from thence westwardly to the Nodewa river,
thirty miles from its entrance into the Missouri; from thence to the
entrance of the Big emahaw [Omaha] river into the Missouri. and with
that river to its source; from thence to the source of the Kanzas
river, leaving the old village of the Pania Republic to the west;
from thence, on the ridge dividing the waters of the Kanzas river
from those of the Arkansas, to the western boundary of the State
line of Missouri, and with that line, thirty miles, to te place of
beginning." Article 2 provided for a reservation 30 miles in width
on the Kansas river.-Treaties Between the United States of
America and the Several Indian Tribes, 1778-1837 (Washington,
1837), p. 334.
16. Missing from journal.
17. Maj. William Davenport, Sixth infantry.
18. Maj. John Dougherty received his appointment as Indian agent in
January, 1827, and began his work at Cantonment Leavenworth in
September of that year.
19. Johnston Lykins (1800-1876), son-in-law of Isaac McCoy, had been
associated with him in missionary work in Indiana and Michigan and
at this time was planning to continue his labors in the west. He
founded the Shawnee Baptist mission in present Johnson county,
Kansas, in 1831. The trip referred to was from Fayette, Mo., to
Carey, Michigan, where he arrangd for the appraisal of the Baptist
mission propety at that place, preparatory to the closing of the
mission. 20. Maj. Bennet Riley (1787-1853) for whom Fort Riley,
Kansas, was named. For a sketch of his life see Kansas Historical
Collections, v. 12, p. 1, footnote.
21. Gen. Henry Atkinson, commanding the western army.
22. "War Department, Office Indian Affairs, June 5, 1830. Sir: The
Rev. Isaac McCoy is charged by the executive with the duty of
running and marking the lines called for by the treaty with the
Delaware. You will instruct the agents who have charge of the
Indians, owning the country over which Mr. McCoy will have occasion
to travel, to inform them of Mr. McCoy's object; that be is under
the protection of the United States, and to require their kind and
friendly conduct towards him and his party. I have, & c & c. Thos.
L. MCKENNEY. To General Wm. Clark, Superintendent Indian Affairs, &
c."-"Indian Removals," 23d Cong., 1st sess., S. Doc. 512, v. 2, p.
23. George Vashon, Indian agent for Cherokees West.
24. Treaty with the Delawares concluded September 24, 1829, ratified
March 24, 1831. This was a supplemental article to the Delaware
treaty concluded at St. Mary's, Ohio, October 3, 1818, and provided
for the cession by the Delawares of all lands in the state of
Missouri. George Vashon represented the United States at the treaty.
25. Stranger creek rises in the central portion of present Atchison
county and flows in a southeasterly direction, emptying into the
Kansas river at present Linwood, Leavenworth county. The stream was
named O-keet-sha by the Kansas Indians, the word meaning stranger.
26. Daniel Morgan Boone, son of Daniel Boone, pioneer, was appointed
farmer for the Kansas Indians in 1827 and located seven miles west
of present Lawrence, on the north bank of the Kansas river, at the
27. Now called the Delaware river. The stream flows in a
southeasterly direction across present Jefferson county emptying
into the Kansas river near present Perry.
28. "The first surveys in what is now the State of Kansas were made
in 1826-7 by Maj. Angus L. Langham of St. Louis but previously from
Chillicothe, Ohio. These were 1st the meanders of the Kansas river
from its mouth to a point twenty leagues due west of the western
boundary of Missouri as provided by the treaty of 1825 with the
Kansas tribe as the east boundary of their reservation thence south
about 13 miles to the S. E. corner thereof, then west two hundred
miles marking the south line thereof. He passed the winter of 1826-7
on Soldier creek about four miles north of present Topeka and about
three miles east [of] the Kaw village of the 'Fool Chief.' He had
with him a small guard of infantry detailed from Fort Osage.
Cantonment Leavenworth was not established as a military post until
1827. The name 'Soldier Creek' was adopted afterwards in honor of
the flag that proudly waved over the Major's shanty and the warlike
aspect of the camp . . . . -Letter, John C. McCoy to F. G. Adams,
February 9, 1885.
29. Under the terms of the treaty of 1825 with the Choctaw, the sum
of six thousand dollars was to be allowed the tribe annually for
twenty years for the use of schools. A school for boys was
established at Blue Springs, Scott county, Kentucky, under the
management of the Baptist church and the sponsorship of Richard M.
Johnson. The first students were received in the autumn of 1825.
Boys from other tribes were also accepted and for a number of years
the institution flourished, but by 1842 the Indians began to
withdraw their boys on account of dissatisfaction with the results
of the educational plan. Soon thereafter the school closed.
30. Missing from journal.
31. Grasshopper river, later known as the Delaware river, was also
at this time called Sautrelle river.
32. "Cant: Leavenworth, 22d. Octr. 1830. To Genl. Wm: Clark, Supt.
Ind: Affs. Sir, I have the honor to inform you that in obedience to
a message that I sent to the Pawnee Republicans, about one hundred
of that tribe consisting of their chiefs and head men assembled at
this post, on the 24th ult. My object for calling a council of those
Indians at this post,/ was to apprise them, that the Government had
sent the Rev. Isaac McCoy to run the Delaware lines; and to point
him out to them, and advise them how they should treat him, should
they meet with him. This I conceived necessary as a precautionary
measure, to guard against any difficulty which might possibly ensue,
should they meet with his party, without any knowledge of its
character. They made professions of friendship in general, and
furthermore promised, that if they met with Mr McCoy they would
treat him friendly; and also would advise their young men to do the
same. They informed me that they met with our Santa Fe traders last
summer on the Arkansas, smoked and talked with them friendly. They
left here shortly after the Council for their village, apparently
much gratified, well pleased with their visit. I thought it the more
necessary that I should assemble and talk with the Pawnees, in
regard to Mr. McCoy, as the Kanza Indians have recently committed a
breach of the treaty of peace between them and the Pawnees, by
stealing several horses, and taking one scalp; and supposing it not
improbable that the Pawnees would endeavor to retaliate, in which
cases their war parties in passing from the Republican to the Kansas
village, might possibly fall in with the surveying party, and
finding them not far distant from the Kansas village, might without
being apprised of their cr chatter seriously interrupt them. After
hearing of the conduct of the Kansas, I went to the Kansas Sub
Agency; on finding Genl. M. G. Clark Sub Agent absent, I requested
of the Kansas a return of the Pawnee horses, which they declined
doing. I have not been informed that the Pawnees have made any
attempt at retaliation.
Very Respectfully, Your Obt. Servt, Joe. Dougherty, Ind. Agt."
-U. S. Indian Superintendency MSS., v. 6, pp. 58, 57.
33. "The treaty which had fixed the boundary of the Delaware country
made no provision for reserving to the use of the United States the
site of Fort Leavenworth, and to make the survey according to my
instructions would have rendered the site ineligible. I therefore
assumed the responsibility of making an arrangement with Quick, who
acted in behalf of his people, by which a suitable tract was
reserved for the use of te garrison. This measure was afterwards
approved by the Secretary of War."-History of Baptist Indian
Missions (Washington, 1840), by Isaac McCoy, p. 407.
"The McCoy party arrived at Cantonment Leavenworth in the fall of
1830. . . A feeling of uneasiness . soon became manifest, for very
soon it was discovered that no provision had been made for reserving
the land upon which the Cantonment stood. In fact, if Issac McCoy
had followed his instructions literally, he would have included the
Post in the Delaware reservation. However, upon his own initiative,
he arranged a conference with the Post Commander, Major William
Davenport of the 6th Infantry, and the Indian Commissioner, John
Quic. Through arrangements with them, a survey of the land
immediately surrounding the Cantonment was made and limits were
established generally paralleling the present boundaries."--History
of Fort Leavenworth, by Elvid Hunt (Fort Leavenworth, 1926), pp.
34. Dr. T. S. Bryant, surgeon of Cantonment Leavenworth.
35. Salt creek flows in a northeasterly direction across present
Kickapoo township, Leavenworth county, emptying into the Missouri
36. "At frequent intervals along Salt Creek I have found evidences
of aboriginal encamp ments, showing that it was a favorite haunt of
In the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter, section 10,
township 8, range 22, is a natural basin of perhaps one-half acre in
extent, which was evidently at one time either a largely marshy
spring or a small lake. It is situated on the east bank of Salt
Creek, just south of the /public highway leading to Fort
Leavenworth. On the shores of this now dessicated depression have
probably been found more aboriginal relics than at any other spot in
Salt Creek valley. It was no doubt the site of a workshop connected
with the old Kaw village [the lower of two Kansas villages on the
Missouri river, both of which had disappeared when Lewis and Clark
visited the region in 1804. On the high hill, along what is known as
'Sheridan's Drive,' overlooking this camp site and the whole valley,
is a group of ancient mounds, one of which was opened by Mr. McCoy,
the government surveyor, in 1830, being the first Indian mound ever
explored in Kansas. . . A chain of prehistoric dwelling sites
extends the whole length of the Valley, and mementoes of a vanished
race are turned up by every plowshare."="Salt Creek Valley," by
George J. Remsburg, Leavenworth Times, February 15, 1905.
37. See footnote No. 29.
38. Vermillion creek rises in present Nemaha county, flows across
present Pottawatomie county and empties into the Kansas river near
39. The Big Blue river is the largest tributary of the Kansas river.
It rises in present Hamilton county, Nebraska, and enters Kansas
through present Marshall county; forms the boundary between present
Riley and Pottawatomie counties and joins the Kansas at present
Manhattan. One hundred miles of its entire length of 250 miles are
40. See "Ferries in Kansas, Part IV-Republican River," by George A.
Root, the Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 3, pp. 240-248.
41. McCoy's reference is doubtless to the Pawnee Indian village
thought to have been established in present Republic county, S. 3,
T. 2, R. 5w. The surveying party was below this location. John C.
McCoy, a member of the party, states in his article "Survey of
Kansas Indian Lands," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 4, p.
305: "On the 29th of October we reached the Republican, one hundred
and thirty-four miles from Cantonment Leavenworth. This stream was
called by the Kansas Indians Pa-ne-ne-tan, or Pawnee river. The
river was twelve chains wide where we reached it, at a point near
the present town of Clifton, in Washington county. Crossing to the
south side, our course took us past near the present site of the
town of Concordia. The terminus of our line, one hundred and fifty
miles west of the initial points, was in what are now the limits of
Smith county, on the top of a ridge west of Oak creek, not many
miles from the present town of Cawker City."
42. See "Ferries in Kansas, Part V-Solomon River," The Kansas
Historical Quarterly, v. 3, pp. 339-340.
43. McCoy probably intended to add a description of the salt spring
but failed to do so and there is only a blank page in the Journal.
However, he described it as follows in his History of Baptist Indian
Missions, p. 411: "On the Solomon river, a middle branch of the
Kauzau, is a salt spring, which is a great natural curiosity. About
one hundred yards from the bank of the river, in an extensive level
prairie, is a mound of stone, formed by a deep ravine which
surrounds it; it is one hundred and seventy yards in circumference
at its base, and it rises above the bottom of the ravine thirty
feet, and is level on the top, with a diameter of one hundred and
twenty feet. The ravine, on one side, is about forty yards wide, and
on the other ten. The summit of the mound is about a foot and a half
higher than the adjacent plain. No stone of any kind is seen in the
vicinity of the place, except that which composes the mound, which
appears to be a secondary, shelly, and porous limestone. The sides
of the mound, being stone, form a striking contrast with the outer
bank of the ravine, which is only earth. The salt water forms a
stagnant pool in the centre of the mound, fifty-five feet in
diameter, and rising to a perfect level with the summit, so that a
wind from any quarter causes the water to run over the opposite side
of the basin. About half-way up one side issues salt water, which
runs off in a small rivulet into Solomon river. Along this rivulet,
and generally on the sides of the mound, salt is chrystallized in
such quantities that it might be collected for use. The pool on the
top is deep. Solomon river is, by the Kauzaus, called
Nepaholla-meaning, water on the hill-and derives its name from this
fountain; but the fountain itself is by them called Ne
Wôh'kôn'daga--that is, `Spirit water.' The Kansans, Pawnees, and
other tribes, in passing by this spring, usually throw into it, as a
kind of conjuring charm, some small article of value. Waconda, or
Great Spirit Spring, is about two and one half miles southwest of
present Cawker City in Mitchell county.
44. Chapman creek, flowing into the Smoky
Hill river near present
Chapman, Dickinson county.
45. Two Methodist missions were established in what is now Kansas in
1830. The Shawnee Methodist mission was located near present Turner,
Wyandotte county. It was moved to present Johnson county in 1839.
Thomas Johnson was the first missionary. His brother, William
Johnson, was the first Methodist missionary to the Kansas Indians
and evidence supports the theory that he began his work among them
at the Kansas agency. Marston C. Clark, U. S. subagent at the Kansas
agency wrote from that place to U. S. Indian Superintendent William
Clark on November 21, 1830: ' . . . Mr. McAllister & Mr. Johnson and
myself have selected a site for a school house (near the Agency.
Those gentlemen say their school operations will commence at this
place in a very short time. I am pleased with those gentlemen, and
their views on the subject of teaching Indian children."-U. S.
Indian Superintendency MSS., v. 6, pp. 78, 79.
46. There seems to have been a lack of agreement among the Indians
themselves on the subject of the proposed mission; also a tendency
to accept the proposal of the last one to solicit their consent.
Richard Cummins, Indian agent, Delaware & Shawnee agency, wrote/ to
U. S. Indian Superintendent William Clark on January 13, 1831:
the satisfaction to state to you, that agreeable to your wishes
expressive in a letter dated the 8th Nov. 1830, handed me by the
Rev. Mr. McAllister do Thos. Johnson who were appointed to
establish a school among the Shawnee Indians, that we have been
able to get the consent of the Chiefs to establish a school
among what is called Fish's or Jackson's band. The managers of
the institution intend instructing the Indian children the arts
of mechanism as well as that of literature. Mr. Johnson is at
this time making arrangements, and I think shortly after the
winter breaks will have the school in operation. I have great
hope, that after this school is got into operation, the Indians
within my Agency will not be so much opposed to complying with
the wishes of the Government, in the arts of civilization."-U.
S. Indian Superintendency MSS., v. 6, p. 96.