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17 November 2006

The Lenape-Delaware Presence in Southwest Missouri ca.1820-ca.1830

Much of the data to be included was provided by the Center for Archaeological Research, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 South National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804, (417) 836-4889 (Office) (417) 836-5363 (Center). On 4 January 2005 Gina S. Powell of the Center ginapowell@smsu.edu sent an email to Tom Hahn stating:

Hello Dr. Hahn, I'm so glad you contracted us regarding our work at Delaware Town and environs. We have been using the web site that you edit for a skeleton of historic background. The main reason that we think that archaeological investigations at Anderson's Village )or Delaware Town) is important is that there is so little documentation of the decade from 1820-1830.

We have been taking field schools to the James River for 4 years in search of the village, and have explored and documented other 1820s sites, such as the former location of the Wilson trading post. In 2003 we gained access to a field that we thought had high potential. And we were right! We have thus far located a single house location and excavated a large, interior storage/trash pit. This pit was full of artifacts diagnostic of the 1820s and of the Lenape themselves. Among te artifacts are ceramic shards typical of the 1820s, gunflints, lead bullets and scraps, brass tinkle cones and possible arrow tips, glass beads, silver brooches, animal bones, and a few household items, like nails, glass, and knife fragments.

During the summer of 2004, the first week of field school was spent searching for Marshall's trading post near the confluence of the Finley and James Rivers. We used Marshall's probate to try to locate his trading post and distillery. What we found were farms where the ground had been moved and moved and moved again during the 170 years, making the early historical period very difficult to detect. Additonal research is in order before more fieldwork is done. . . .

This 1825 Map of Missouri originally produced by Jonathan Sheppard Books shows the presence of the Delaware in the southwest corner, with the Kickapoo to the north and the Shawnee to the east. The White River is just north of the Arkansas Territory border.

Rendezvous for a Nation: The Delawares on James River (By Lynn Morrow)

Selected excerpts of the typescript:

(From "Delaware Towns: A Trader's Emporium and a Last Rendezvous"

The Upper White River settlements during the 1920s was a conglomeration of: French, English. and Scotch-Irish traders and hunters, numerous nationals of Delaware, Shawnee, Kickapoo, Cherokee, Piankeshaw, Peoria, and other origins, half-breed peoples interspersed throughout, black slaves of traders and free blacks among Indian groups, and white squatters on Federal lands and on Indian claims. *Interpreters, clerks  boatmen. freighters, blacksmiths, stockmen, and agriculturalists were included among the laborers. Even the trade invoices reflect the cultural diversity among the Delawares as merchandise was separated according to "Emigrating Indians" and "Civilized Indians."

The largest entrepot for the dissemination of trade goods was the Gilliss Trading Post on the Upper James River. The Federal annuities allowed by treaty to the Delaware and other Indians were administered through the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, St. Louis. Richard Graham, one of General William Clark's subagents, was responsible for the upper White River tribes during the 1820s. Through other subagents such as Col. Pierre Menard of Kaskaskia-Ste. Genevieve and resident subagents among the tribes such as John Campbell on James River, the federal monies were distributed. 

Louis Lorimer had functioned as the primary Ozarks Delaware and Shawnee protector and patron from the 1780s until his death on the eve of the War of 1812.  In his will he named his "trusty friends Jean Baptiste Valle and St. Gemme Beauvais of Ste. Genevieve" as guardians of his underage children (Lorimer ca. 1811) Lorimer and Valle for many years had a successful mercantile among the Apple Creek settlements. Therefore, with the death of Lorimer, William Clark asked and received permission for the appointment of Pierre Menard as subagent for the Delaware and Shawnee (Carter 1949:632-633 and 651). At some time during the 1810s Louis Lorimer, Jr., a West Point graduate and veteran of travels on the Missouri River to Ft. Osage, continued his father's trading interests among the Delaware. Lorimer, Jr., built a trading post at the mouth of Swan Creek which William Gilliss bought in 1822 (see Morrow 1981: 147-167 for Gilliss background). It is also possible Peter A. Lorimer may have been at Swan Creek.

William Gilliss, who became the chief trader among the Delaware on James River, apparently began trading while in the Kaskaskia-Ste. Genevieve area after the War of 1812. His many influential business associates included General William H. Harrison in the of Northwest Territory and Col. Pierre Menard, Territorial Governor of Illinois and famous trader and diplomat among the Indians...

In the fall, 1820 transactions, numerous familiar names appear in the immigration saga of the Delaware into the Ozarks: James Wilson  powder, lead, tobacco, gunflints; G. Beauvais rifle locks, gun repair; Vital St. Gemme corn; Francois Menard corn, beef; William Gilliss beef, a coffin; J. B. Valle flour - 17,600 pounds, beef - 22,266 pounds, tobacco - 200 pounds, corn 462 bushels; Francis Janis corn; Michael Jani corn; and many more...

Through Menard and Vale, William Gilliss traded with the Delawares and realized his own personal fortune - one that in essence was financed by the $4,000 perpetual annuity awarded them by the St. Mary's treaty of 1818. Gilliss' success was also due to his personal relations with William Anderson, head chief of the Delaware. and his diplomatic cohabitation with Indian women.

The Richard Graham Papers do not suggest much hostility among the James River traders. L=Licensed traders such as William Marshall, who also was supplied by Menard an Valle, did complain to Graham  when he knew Gilliss or others had not complied with the regulations. But on the whole a virtual trading monopoly did not seem to exist. It was tied to Ste. Genevieve families, with Menard and Valle having the most influence. Apparently a major reason for unhindered profits made at the Delaware towns was that Menard and Valle established reciprocal trading agreements with John Jacob Astor.

By the Spring of 1823 new Delaware being established on the James River reflected the ever-increasing national arrivals of the tribe. At this time Astor bought out Stone, Bostwick & Company who were primary consumers of the Mississippi Valley trade. Peripheral arrangements included an association with Menard and Valle "who had ties with traders working throughout southern Missouri unto Arkansas and what is now eastern Oklahoma." (Lavendar 1964:341) Menard and Valle were to buy their merchandise from the American Fur Company and, in turn Astor was given the first right to buy their furs. (Terrell `963:370) While this arrangement was practiced in the mid-1920s Menard and Valle had the advantage of the majority of the Delaware Nation assembled in one general locale long the James River.

The Delaware in Southwest Missouri settled in a cluster of villages along James River and in a scattering of camps throughout the region. Tribal members were with Shawnee groups in the northern Ozarks, at the headwaters of the Casconada in Wright County, at the mouth of Black Mingo and in the Stoddard County swamplands; near the great bend of White River" (both north and south of it). on the upper Finley River near Linden in Christian County, and westward in the Red River country. Their settlements in the James River country were similar to "at least nine Delaware town from present Indianapolis to the environs of present Muncie" along the West Fork of White River in Indiana. (Westlager 1978:54) (Figure 9) The James River villages included those of band leaders William Patterson and Captain Ketchum, who formerly had villages at Apple Creek (Weslager 1978:221) Among other leaders who had, or may have had their own villages, we Nacoming, Killbuck, Black Beaver, Pipe, John Quick, Suwaunock, and William Anderson.  (See the document, June 10, 1826, Delaware Agency James Fork of White River for a list of "chiefs, councilmen and captains" of the Delaware on James River for potential village leaders [Figure 11] [not yet included] The Delaware claimed some 33 square miles in 1825 and 60 in 1829...

The basic Delaware land claims lay along the upper river corridor of James River. The southern boundary was the mouth of Finley River...A number of the families already settled on Delaware land were white pioneers mentioned in many local writings: Pettyjohns, Yoachums, Friends, Pattersons, Mooneys, Wells, etc. [Chief] Anderson allowed some of the whites to stay. The chiefs expressed "a wish for Mr. Mooney who lives on the James that he should remain as he has always conducted himself well and friendly to the Indians." (  Graham Papers September 20, 1825) The rest were removed, although often just outside the legal limits of Delaware claims. This is precisely what Slocom Yoachum and John (?) Denton did below the mouth of Finley, where they and several others established peach brandy and whiskey stills...

With the arrival of [Chief] Anderson's group to James River in 1822, Anderson's village became an official seat foe the trading bureaucracy. Subagent John Campbell lived and wrote official correspondence from there and the Kickapoo called on Campbell at Anderson's. Campbell complained to Graham about not being paid to interpret for the Kickapoo but he apparently continued to do so. Interpreters were always valuable on the trading frontier and at Anderson's village interpreter training took place. A trainee, James Conner, was from the Connors family who functioned in the center of Delaware life from Indiana through Missouri and in the Great Plains. Campbell used James Connor as an assistant during one council mission, and,

found with a little practice he will make a first rate interpreter. He speaks the English language very well and has come to speak the Delaware language well so says the Indians. He is now with me reading and writing. I think that him and Troit together would answer all our purposes well as to the interpreting (Graham Papers September 27, 1825).

When traders applied for licenses in the upper  White River country and wanted trade with more than one tribe, they had to be established at Anderson's Town (Graham Papers April 9, 1825). Campbell wanted the Superintendency to construct Federal buildings on the James "opposite Anderson's dwelling . . . built on the pan of Wilson's buildings. " Anderson's house was located near a "fine spring and good timber." Campbell found it" disagreeable to board w9ith those people" but in an official capacity he apparently visited all the Delaware cabins (Graham Papers July 25,, 1825). Lack of material amenities naturally disturbed Campbell and he implored Graham "not to forget to send tea. his hat, trunk and mattress by Wilson (Graham Papers May 19, 1825). . .

For the most part Campbell was the primary law officer in Southwest Missouri during the 1820s. Even at that he was not sure of his own jurisdiction, and he asked for clarification when criminal actions were brought to his attention. Apparently Indian posses were at his disposal should he decide to use them. . On the James River, Agent Campbell struggled with numerous thefts of stock among Indians and Whites and the ever-present problem of illegal whiskey. . .

The Delaware huts may have been the more common type of domestic residence. Certainly there were "cabins" of varying quality patterned along traditional single-cell structures or combinations of double-cell, saddle, and dog-trot houses (see Appendix IV, Gilliss Trading Post Function) [not included herein]. The Delawares' common neighbor, the Shawnee, were known for vertical log houses in Tennessee and on Apple Creek, but no evidence exists yet to suggest Shawnee or Delaware vertical houses in the upper White River country...

Epilogue: . . . During the 1830s a few Delaware apparently remained in the Missouri and Arkansas Ozarks. Most of them went on to Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Delaware and Osage tribesmen visited their 0ld homes in Southwest Missouri until 1845, according to Statistics of the Population of Greene County, 1876:18. . . . Glliss of course continued his Indian commerce on the border of the Missouri and Kansas reservations. He lived in a log house until he built his stone mansion and became and almost mythical person around Kansas City long years after his death. Joseph Philibert stayed in the same area as Gilliss for two years, investing land there and in St. Louis. He returned to White River country. established a large farm at the mouth of he James River, and became a well-known pioneer in modern Stone County. James Wilson, interpreter and trader on James River, reputedly named the town of Springfield for his home town of Springfield, Massachusetts. . . . Wilson was fired as interpreter by Campbell for improper dealings with the Delaware. Although Wilson lived with the Delaware women he was accused of stealing their iron and swindling the Indians of their money. Before his death ca. 1835 he went to St. Louis for a French bride, and returned to Wilson Creek. . . .

But the most locally significant principal of Delaware Towns background in this regard was trader William Marshall. Marshall's death in 1833 produced a two=year probate litigation as the Greene County Court sought to administer his some $12,000 estate including two slaves. Over-half was awarded to the Menard-Valle Company of St. Genevieve, but accounts payable and accounts receivable among Greene County pioneers was lengthy. Marshall, who had moved to Ingle's old mill downstream to the mouth of Finley where he had a Plantation," ran this small industry and was also a "banker" for numerous people by providing cash and services credit (History of Green County 1883: 131-132) . . .

Of the above four Indian traders who all came together at Kaskaskia-Ste. Genevieve and were involved in the Delaware Towns Indian trade, only Gilliss did not live out his life in the James River area. Gillis removed with the annuities [to the Delaware]. Perhaps the others regretted the Delaware removal as they pondered the beneficial effect to the local economy and improvements that annuities as transfer payments had produced. Marshall, Philibert, and Wilson all three, by virtue of the "annuity trade," became early influential citizens of Greene County.

* * *

"The History of Delaware Town" probably written by Paul. W. Jones, (From Christian County , Missouri:  History &  Families, Paducah, Ky: 1998 (Turner Publishing), p. 33

From 1820 to 1830, when the first white settlers came into the region that now comprises Christian County, the only settlement of any consequence in the entire area that is now southwest Missouri was Delaware Town. It consisted of the James Fork Trading Post (named so because it was situated on the James Fork of the White River), several homes, a warehouse, a building where cheese was made (all these structures were made of logs), several hen houses and corn cribs, the many lodges of the Delaware Indians who resided in the village of the principal chief of the tribe, Captain William Anderson, and a large horse-racing track where the Delawares raced their mounts and wagered on the outcome.

This was all situated on the main trail through the area at the time, the Delaware Trail, which later became known as the White River Trace. The trail forded the James River upriver from the present-day Highway 14 bridge, one of the   first two bridges in the county was installed at the site in the late 1880s. That wooden structure was replaced by a metal truss bridge in 1904, but6 has since been removed entirely. No access to the river is now available at the site, but a nearby graveyard is named the Delaware Cemetery. [A short history of the Delaware westward follows but is not included as it duplicates data elsewhere in this site...

...by 1818, the advancing tide of settlers forced them to sign another treaty which would locate them on new lands in what is now Christian County. In return the US government agreed to pay the tribe an annual annuity in silver totaling $4000, give them 120 horses, and provide them with [a[ government-employed blacksmith. Thirteen hundred and forty-six Delawares and their fourteen hundred horses were ferried across the Mississippi River in the summer of 1820 to take up residence on the new lands, which had been chosen for them by General William Clark of Lewis & Clark fame.

Other villages strung out along the banks of the James River were those of Captain Ketchum (Whose Lenape name was Tah-whee-lalen), Capt. Pipe (who was of the wolf clan), Capt. Patterson (Meshe Kowhay), Capt. Beaver (who was of the turkey clan), Natcoming and Suwaunock (Chief Anderson's son).

The whites in the Delaware Town area at this time were William Gilliss (who owned the trading post and also had one on the banks of Swan Creek near what is now Forsyth), Joseph Philibert (who worked for Gilliss a the James Fork Trading Post), William Myres (who clerked for Gilliss at the Swan Creek Trading Post), James and  Phoebe Pool (he was the government-paid blacksmith for the Delawares), Richard Graham (Indian Agent), John Campbell (Indian sub-agent), William Marshall (a competing trader who also built a crude mill on the Finley River near its mouth), James Wilson (competing trader who was located on the banks of the creek that would come to bear his name) and Solomon Yokum )who was ordered off the reservation by Campbell for selling whiskey to the Delawares).

There were also several slaves belonging to Gilliss who served as cooks and cheese makers. In addition, Baptiste Peoria, who was part Indian and part African, served as an interpreter and guide for Gilliss.

William Gilliss, the most successful of the traders, lived in a double-pen, dog-trot log house at Delaware town. Twice a year he'd dispatch Philibert and a helper to drive two wagons to the town of Ste. Genevieve on the Mississippi River to pick up supplies. It would take them 15 days to get there and much longer to return loaded down with trade goods. [There follows a detailed paragraph on the contents of the wagons on such a trip in 1827.]

The Delawares used their annual annuity from the government, paid in silver (one theory has it that Solomon Yokum, after being kicked off the reservation, melted down this silver specie to form his own Yokum dollars in order to hide the fact that he was still selling whiskey to the Indians) to purchase trade goods. By the time they had come to Delaware Town, they had adopted many of the European ways of living, In addition to breechcloths, they wore white men's clothing, used metal tools an d hunted with rifles. While some lived in the traditional rounded lodges made from tree limbs, brush, cedar boughs and animal hides, others resided in log cabins, with a dirt floor and a hole in the of to allow smoke from the cook-fire to escape.

William Gilliss followed the Delawares to Kansas after they signed the 1829 James Fork Treaty that removed them even further west. Their new lands were situated near the Missouri River, Gilliss became a wealthy man and was one of the founders of Kansas City. By the end of 1830, the Delawares had left southwest Missouri. Looking at a map drawn by surveyor John C. Sullivan in 1824, it appears that the Delaware lands (stretching 70 miles east to west and e44 miles north to south) covered most of Christian County, as well as Stone and a portion of Taney, Barry, and Lawrence counties. During its heyday, the Delaware Town settlement was the place of importance in the Missouri Ozarks...

* * *

(From Wm. F. Switzler,  A Trip to the South. 1836; SMSU Center for Archaeological Research, Folder 10)

Present-day Springfield, Missouri is the nearest town to the old Delaware Town, located some 12 miles distant. The following 1836 account briefly describing was written about six years after the Delaware departure:


We arrived at Springfield on Wednesday 16th day of September [year date not presently known]. This is a Poor Race [sic] & the country is indifferent that surrounds it. There are some 8 or 10 log- cabins which form the place. There are 3 or 4 Stores 2 groceries, 2 Black-Smith shops & one Tan-yard. This is the first pace that I ever Knew of a Post Office being kept in a grocery. The Post office of this Place is the first After we left Boonville. We staid in this Place one night & part of a one day. We were entertained by T. Campbell the Tavern keeper. His Table was Tollerably well furnished, as well I presume as the country affords. . .

Indian Village

Twelve o clock when we started for a stand 12 miles distant known by the name of the: Delaware towns: This place was once an Indian village of considerable Strenght [sic], but it is now in a State [of] dilapidation therefore bears but few marks of former greatness. There is a Large creek (Wilson) running along the Side of this old Town. It is said, that the Idian [sic] Graves are seen for four or five miles on the Bank of this creek.  We traveled on & passed the Line dividing Missouri from Arkansas Territory my [by] next day after we left the Indian Village. The Line is 34 miles from a small town in Arkansas Territory called Fayetteville. The country along  here is very rich & Produces the best corn I ever saw. On the 21st September, we arrived at Fayetteville We were delayed here some hours, Reshoeing a Part of our horses. . .
From Wm. F. Switzler,  A Trip to the South. 1836; SMSU Center for Archaeological Research, Folder 10)

 * * *

A Gun Repair Tool Kit for the Delaware Indians by James E. Price
(From The Chronicle of the Early American Industries [Vol. 38, No. 2, June 1985], p. 34)

While conducting research in the Missouri Historical Society archives I discovered a document relevant to early American industries. It is an invoice of June 27, 1822 for tools provided as annuities to the Delaware Indians by the U.S. Indian Department on behalf of Major Richard Graham who was an Indian agent living in St. Louis, Missouri. Graham authorized the purchase of the tools from B. L. Valle who presumably delivered them to the Indians living at that time on the Current and Jacks Fork Rivers in the area now encompassed by Ozark National Scenic Riverways in the southeastern Ozarks of Missouri.
     The assemblage of tools represented by the list appears to constitute a kit of maintaining and repairing firearms. The list of entries for 11 categories of metalworking tools and 9 of woodworking tools, assuming the files were used only on metal. The metalworking tools would have allowed the Indians to shape, pierce, hold, cut, tap, and cut threads on gun parts. The woodworking tools were probably intended for use in repairing and making gunstocks. A hand saw was provided for cutting wood and chisels and gouges for bedding barrels and inletting locks and other parts. A jack plane, a smooth plane, and a round plane were probably intended for shaping and smoothing gunstocks after they were roughed out with the drawknife provided. The bitstock provided was probably intended for boring holes for the lock and escutcheon plate screws and for other piercing.
     The 300 pounds of iron included with the tools were probably for raw material for the manufacture of gun parts. Other contemporaneous documents indicate that most metal forging work was done by European blacksmiths for the Indians at the expense of the U.S. Indian Department. . .

     for the following Tools and Iron furnished to the Delaware Indians on your written order
To  1 doz 6, I chizzels                   $2.25
 6 pitt Saw files 8 1/2 in 56 1/4         1.00
12  polished files15 in 75                  9.00
 6 X cut Saw files 37 1/2                  2.25
 3  flat      do    15 in in 75                2.25
 3  1.2 round   15 in    75                 2.25
 1 Smoothing plane                          1.87 1/2
 1 Jack plane                                   1.50 
 1 Drawing Knife                            1.00
 6 Rat Tail files    62 1/2                  3.75
 1 Screw plate for Breeching Rifles   8.00
 2   do                       do Smaller     12.00
 1 Hand saw                                     2.00
 1 Saw for Cutting Rifle Barrels         4.00
 1 hand vise                                      1.00
 1 Drill                                             1.00
 1 doz Gouges                                   5.00
 1 wimble or Brace                            3.00
 2 Round planes                                3.00
 300# iron                      .10             30.00
  Received 27 June 1822 of Maj. R. Grahams by the hands of Col. P. Menard Ninety Nine Dollars and fifty Cents in full of the above acct.                       


Miscellaneous Items of Correspondence (Mostly from Richard Graham Papers) A few items have been given emphasis by your editor.

[To] P. Menard: Department of War 8 Augt.1821
Sir, Your letter of the 7 June, enclosing an estimate for the quarter ending 3th Set. next, has been received.
    Funds for the 1st & 2nd Mos have long since been remitted to you, this Gov. Clark, which I presume you have received before this time. A remittance was also made directly to you on the 23 May last of $3341.66 on account of the expenses of the emigration of the Delaware, of which you were informed by letter of that date, and emigration of the Delaware, of which you were informed by letter of that date, and which I had hoped would be sufficient to cover all the expenses of the Delaware emigration as it was the entire balance remaining of the appropriation for that object. But as it appears from your estimate for the quarter ending the 30th Sept. next, that it will not be sufficient. I have deemed it advisable to authorize you to draw on Gov. Thos. A. Smith. the receiver at Franklin, Missouri, for $6021/the amt. pf your estimate, which I confidently expect will, with the sum before remitted, be amply sufficient to cover all expenses attending the emigration of the Delawares, and also of the Kickapoos, for the present year.
     The expenses of the Delawares, where they are present located, are very heavy, in consequence of the scarcity of the game, will continue to be so while they remain here; it is therefore desirable that they should be removed as soon as possible, to a country where game is more agreeable; and I have enclosed an extract of your other respects will be rendered more agreeable; and I have enclosed an extract of your letter to Mr. Graham, their agent, and called his attention particularly to this subject. . . .(signed J. C. Calhoun)
[It is not specified exactly where the Delaware were located at this time, but it appears from the letter below that they were not yet at the James Fork of the White River]

From R. Graham. 4 March 1822 An estimate of such articles as should be furnished m to the Delawares now residing on the Currant River in the State of Missouri and to thopse on their way to the Currant,
consisting of altogether of about 2400 souls for thee months, and which should continue until their corn is made
2700 bushels of corn at 50cts  $1350
12000 bushels of flour at 21/2 cts  300
900  powder at 40 cts  360
2000  lead at 5 cts  100
400  tobacco  salt at 161/2  67.331/2
2000  flints  at 1.25  20
To transport the flour, powder, lead, Salt, and Tobacco, will cost 500 that  is 16 carts at $35 per trip [Total so far] $2734.831/2
An additional amount should be allowed for meat for those, who are on their way and of course have not been able to make a winter hunt--an allowance of 15 meat per head per each quarter at 8 cents per lb   1440 [grand total] $4174/831/2
This would give to each indiidual 1/3 of a qt. of corn or a little better than 6 oz. per day
5/6 of an oz of flour pr day
2 oz of meat per day

The Honble the Secty of War in his letter of 23 April 1822 says, "you will exercize your discretion in furnishing provisions to the new Delaware Emigrants for a reasonable time. but it my opinion that the government is not bound to furnish any thing more than a due proportion of corn for support until they can raise it for themselves.". . .

Researcher Note: Menard and Valle supplied William Gillis, William Marshall, and perhaps others during their two years residence with the Delawares in modern Shannon County . . . [Shannon County is in southern Missouri about midway between Greene County--where Delaware Town was located--and Cape Girardeau. Editor]

R. Graham to Wm. Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Sr. Louis, 2 July 1822
Sir: The Secty of War informs me that you have been appointed under an act of Congress passed at the last Session Superintendant of Indian Affairs at St. Louis and by direction of the President your Superintendance will enha[n]ce the several Indian agencies on the Mississippi and Missouri & requires me to correspond with you in relation to my duties and take your instruction upon all points connected with them.
     Under these direction and to give you a view of the situation of my agency I beg leave to state that early in May last I received from the Secty of War a draft for$10, to pay the following annuities
     Delawares $4300
Weas 3000
     Kickapoos 2000
     Great Osage 500
     Little Osage 500
Stating to me at the same time "the Delaware annuity to be $5500 of which $1200 have been remitted to Mr. Johnson to pay for horses furnished to the last immigrants, The $2000 due to the Kickapoo under the Treaty at Edwardsville and the private annuities of the Delaware chiefs Anderson & Lapanihilie [spelling?] & the an allowance to the Delawares in lieu of Salt, will be remitted as soon as an appropriation is made by Congress.
     I have not received the latter annuities & am now waiting for them before I proceed to distribute the others, as I do not wish to make two trips for their payment besides at this particular time all the Indians are out at their Summer hunt & will not return before 1 Aug. If therefore these annuities have been remitted to you, I would like to receive them at as early a date as possible. . .
     I herewith enclose you an estimate of expenses necessary in removing the Indians (Delaware & Kickapoo) to the Lands designated for them by Gov, this Estimate embraces the lowest possible amt. that can be expended for them with a view to keep them from starving. . .
(Folder 13)     

[To] Gen. Wm. Clark, Superintendent of Ind. Affairs. St. Louis, Oct. 3, 1822
     Sir: . . . The Delaware & Shawnee will commence their movement this fall for their Lands. which I have selected agreeable to instructions from the Honble the Secty of War they are situated in S.W. corner of the State Bounded by the Osage Boundary line on the W. tye Kickapoo Boundary on the NE & running from those lines to include such quantity of land as may be deemed advisable to grant to them, to include the Great Bend of White River at James Fork with a reservation of the lead mines (the Indians expect 70 miles square), The Cheifs of the Delaware are extremely anxious to have the extent of their lands finced, their boundaries run out at [as?[ marked, & the White people who are now settled on there removed as speedily as possible. I will have by leave to request the policy of ordering off as soon as practeable all the squatters on those lands designed for the Indians. Numbers of families have settled themselves on those lands neither this year past & many are moving from Boonslick County to settle in them. The Lead mines on White River are worked by White people under an old unconfirmed Spanish grant, it is said, of this grant I know nothing tho, am informed it is for 5 leagues square, if so & proved to be, a good claim, it will interfere with the lands to be granted to the Delawares.
     The Kickapoos have settled on the Veangus [?]a Tributary stream of the Osage & about 25 miles East from the boundary of their own land. They are unwilling to move on their own lands. Refused to receive from me their annuities for the present year. [There follows a long speech--not included herein-- from Kickapoo expressing their dissatisfaction for the arrangement made for them, a speech that was undoubtedly repeated by other tribes.]
     I found some difficulty in getting the Osage to agree to give up their Factory on Marie deCigne but when they found there was no treaty of obligation to continue the factory. they consented to yield . . .
     I am happy to inform you that a treaty of peace has been entered into between the Osages, Delawares & Shawnees & perfectly tranquility is restored to all the Indians within my agency. Respectfully. . . R Graham, U.S. Ind. Agt.

R. Graham,. U.S. Ind. Agent to Mr. James Wilson, Interpreter to the Delaware Nation. St. Louis, 6 Nov. 1822
Sir: Enclosed is a talk & wampum from the Stockbridge Indians to [Chief] Anderson o the cheifs of the Delaware Nation & one from myself. You will read them both to Anderson and his cheifs. You will take their answer down in writing & forward it to unto the Secty. of War.
     Col. Menard informs me that it is possible [probable?] probable Mr. Souchet [spelling?] will overtake you on the road as you will be with your wagon - if so, and Anderson is not with you, you will hurry on to where he is as an answer to the Stockbridge Indians is required at as early a day as possible.
     Let me know how the Indians are getting on. What number will move this fall.
(Folder 13)

St. Louis January 21st: 1824 Major Richard Graham, Washington City
Dear Sir  Inclosed you will receive a letter intended for you which was inclosed to me from Batesville by Col. Boswell who states that the Indians are very noumerous about that peace & the Inhabitants much alarmed. I have coutuned [cautioned] to Col. Boswel that I have no control over the Indians in the Territory of Arkansas. Col. Menard is on White River and will interfer in proveting [sic] Defensettes between Whites and Indians. I have also answered the letter of Col. buckle in which he is informed that it will be the duty of your sub Agent to demand the murders of five men - [?]and that there is not the slightest sinallent [sic] probability of the White River Indians uniting with the Osage in the event of a rupture with the united States. The movement of part of White Rain [?] band near the White River indians intended now for seperation of themselves from the mischievous part of their nation that than a wish to gain Auxilery [?]
     Gen. Atkinson sent an express a few days ago to Col. Arbuckle ordering him to come a demand to be made of the murders of five Americans. Those Osages are so much in the habit of commiting outrages against the American traders, & citizens passing through their country it will become necessary to punish them as the will is increasing.
     The Delawares on White River as it appears from reports & letters from Anderson are nearly in a state of starvation. Tully has not returned from the Kickapoos, nothing of much importance amongst the other Tribes of your agency. [The remainder of the letter is not of interest here.]

15 Feb.ry 1824.  Mouth of the Swan and White River. Addressed to Wm. Clark Esquire, Siperentendant of Indian Affairs, St. Louis [Parts of the manuscript are difficult to read.]
Dear Sir: I past at the Delawar on James Fork five day[s] ago. All the Delawars Excepte [Chief William] Anderson and five or six Famely [families] have goone to the wood to suporte them self having nor corn nor games near the vilage. Anderson with howm [whom] I have staid three day[s] . . . and fear some Difugullay [difficulty] with the Whites . . . By your orders a years ago Are now returning and have taken their lace howme [home] . . .The Whi [whtes] [say] that the Indians are . . . perhaps little moor than 40 mile East of State boundary Ligne . . .
     Ther is at this placetwo very hold [old] men one of them interely [entirely] Being Two Crippled not very hold [old] and Seven old women. Al neked and sytarved the[y] are in the Bound[ary] of the Stae of Messaung [Missouri] . . . Corn his [is] a[t] James Fork $ Per bushall and will be $2 Before . . . one maun [month] the Dallawar have no more . . . Wm. Marshall [has] abat [about] 200 B[ushels]. Giles 150 James Wilson the Interpreter 125 B. The Wea Peooria & Penkeshaw hanot [have not] one Graine of corn for two months past Mr. Lorimer at this Place [h]as 500 B. But it is disposed of.
     I remaine with the higest Esteme yours Respectfully Pierre Menard

[From] A.L.S. Pierre Menard to: Wm. Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs St Louis. 1824 February 15 Mouth of Swan and White R.
Subject: The Delawares have gone to the woods to get subsistence since they have no corn or game near their village. The Peorias, Piankashaws and Weas have also taken to the woods. Nevertheless they are moving in closed to Anderson on James Fork in order to be back at Anderson Village by the 25th or 30th. Will be better able then to give an account of the situation of the Indian.
Persons: Delawares, Anderson, Shwanees, Peorias, Piankisha, Weas, Wm. Marshall, James Wulson, Mr. Lorimier
Places: James Fork, State of Missaury, Mississippi, Anderson Village

[To] Gnl. EWm. Clark. Delaware Agency 22 Sept. 1824
   Sir. The Delaware Indians in addition to the places already allotted for trade, wish for their convenience the three forks of White River to be established as one of the points. I will observe that place is without the boundary of Treaty allotted to the Delaware Indians. Yrs. Respectfully R. Graham, U.S. Ind. Agt.

Charges against James Wilson, U.S. Interpreter for the Delaware Nation of Indians, exhibited by John Campbell, U.S. Sub Agent

Charge 1st: Want of knowledge of the Delaware Tongue
Charge 2nd: Not interpreting according to the true meaning any talk from the Agent to the Indians & from the Indians to the Agent
Charge 3rd: For giving advice to the Indians contrary from that which the Agent had given.
Charge 4th: For contempt of the Government.
Specification 1st: Inasmuch as the said Wilson did curse the Govt. of the U.S. when being told that he did not interpret according to the true intent & meaning of the orders of the Government.
Charge 5th: For cheating the Indians
Specification 1st: The said Wilson did keep and make use of Iron, belonging to the Indians and intended for their use.
John Campbell, Sub Indian Agt.

[1825?] To: Gen Wm. Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs St. Louis. [This letter shows that many Delaware were still in Illinois in 1825.]
Subject: Reports in conformity with Clark's instructions to visit the different Indian hunting camps within the State of Illinois and to urge the Indians to remove to their own lands west of the Mississippi early in the spring. The Potawatomis have been friendly with the whites, but are unwilling to move from their -resent location which is on military bounty lands. The Kickapoos have not yet emigrated. but have caused no complaints to have been made because of their conduct. It is of the opinion that most of the Indians will have to be forced from Illinois, so strong is their attachment to the land of their fathers. The whiskey they obtain so easily is largely confirming them in this stand. The Delawares have been conducting themselves well, but drink to excess and are loathe to leave a place where it is so easily obtained. Recommend prohibiting all trade with the Indians in the State of Illinois after the 1st of June and also preventing them from planting any corn in that state.
Persons: Potawatamies, Kickapoos, Macina, Delawares, Miami Indians
Places: Illinois, Mississippi River, Laryamo, Little . . .[?], Kaskaskia River, Edwardsville, Wabash. [Signed] A.L.S. R. Graham

(Folder 13) From John Campbell to Major Richard Graham. Anderson's Village, James Fork, May 19th 1825.
     Sir  I have this day pointed out a situation for building opposite to Anderson's dwelling, where there is a fine spring and good timber for building. I would advise that the buildings to be built on the plan of Wilson's buildings. I am unable to ascertain what they will cost, but it will be considerably above one hundred dollar. I have had a talk today with [Delaware Chief] Anderson today on the subject of the man hoo [who] is selling Whiskey to the Indians he is much dissatisfied that he is not removed. I should have started down on Sunday but on examining the laws I am not satisfied that my powers extend me fully on this subject and I will attend to it immediately. I think it would be well to write to the proper authority in Arkansas and no [know] wheather those persons have account to squatt without permission on the publick lands. If there can be no way to break this set of horse steelers and whiskey sellers up, we shall have no peace in this nation. The Kickapoos have called again today asking me to visit them. I shall goe and see them soon as Anderson leaves. This Anderson wishes me to write you to mention to Genl. Clark Something about the horse that was taken from his son by the man Anderson took the whiskey from as he cannot get his horse. Please send me some tea by Wilson and dont forget my hat. Be sure to make the arrangements with Col. Menard to bring my trunk and Mattras and the articles in my memorandum, send me paper and quils, Ink powder for Wilson.
   Track[?] wishes to say to you the number of persons belonging to there family there is twenty souls in all here including Bob hoo are entitled to there share.
     Inclosed yuo have the list of horses lost by the Dellawares and the evidence persisely as they gave it in. It is more lengthy than is necesary but they would have every particular set down. I should of done it myself, but had no paper and my pen has given out. I wish you would urge the nessisity of having ur buildings put up, for it is very disagreeablbe to have to board with those people. I wish you would write me fully on the subject of those horse thiaves and whiskey sellers. I wish to no wheather I shall be Justifiable in taking some of the Indians with one and forcing those fellows to give up the property belonging to the Indians. Write me all the news and don't forget my letters.

(Folder 13) John Campbell, Sub Indian Agt. to Graham. James Fork,. White River, July 25th, 1825

Sir. Inclosed you have some documents for your parusal on the subject of hog killing by the Dellawares. The dispute betw Natcoman and Mr. Marshall is not yet settled. Marshall has gone to Cape Herrardoe [Girardeau) for evidence. There is much feeling here amongst the Indians about the manner in which the annuities shall be distributed. The poor Indians complain to me constantly and that that they they  in the duration get little or nothing that the big fish eat all the little ones up. There complaints are made by Killbuck's band and very justly so too. I am creditably informed at he Killbuck and his great men have signed receipts to Gillis & Boys [Boyce] for Seventeen hund dollars to be paid out of this annuity. This is for depts. [debts] contracted by Killbuck and a few of his band. By this means the poor of his band are to get nothing. This is unjust and ought not to be suffered. I hope you will inform Col. Menard of this and prevent his excepting those orders of Killbucks. Anderson the Chief Joins me. He is much disatisfied with me in consequence of the corse I have persued to endeavor to stop them frombringing in such quantities of whiskey. Thjere has not been less than three hundred dollars of whiskey brought in the nation by the Indians since you left. This Andersenand myself have called the chiefs and soldiers together several times and I have said everything I could to to atop it but to no purpose. Anderson says we will stop but them goe on and see what will be there fate. You have no conception of the Difficulty I have had undergone since I arrived here. I have not had three days rest since I have been here. I believe I have erected every cabbin on the Dellaware land. I have just returned from a visit to the Peankeshaws and Weas and Peorias. they join me in endeavoring to stop them from bringing in whiskey below. The chief of the Piankeshaws informed me that some of those white people who were permitted to remain on the and by Anderson had brought in whiskey and sold it tot he Indians. I remained and watched them for two days but could not ketch them. On my return I called on Anderson  [and] told him that they must leave the land. He called the chief and they councilled together. finally concluded that I should notify those men that if they do soe again they must leave the land immediately but they must have it all wints [wintr?] so soon as them crops were finished. [As clear as mud. Editor] I have visited the Kickapoos frequently, I have made them give up some horses which they had belonging to the whites. I should be glad if the could be anint [another] interpretor for the Kickapoos. I have had that to do myself which is not my duty. They wish someone to visit them on the Osage river which I shall doe as the fires are done. Some Jurion [?] has written to the Kickapoos that they would furnish  them goods at a very reduced price for there annuity. They had agreed to take there goods from Col. Menard as they told me themselves. I doe not expect that any body will furnish them lower than Menard.
     I have now given you a full view of everything worth your attention. Except that I have notified Mr. Wilson that I should not [call] on him again to interprat for me, he is by no means fit for that place, he cannot give the propper interpratation of anything, he will always put his own construction upon what I say to the Indians and what they Indians say to me. This I have caught him at frequently and giving different advise from myself. This Anderson and a great many of them tells me now. They say they thought I would find it out myself. I have do soe to my satisfaction. You can doe as you please. I informed him on the 21st of this month that I should not call on him again. I have spoken to Troyet [?] to act for me for the present. Send me the outlines of the late treaty that I may no the boundary lines. Give my best respects to Govener Clark and family and to Col. Abinander [?] I am much oblige to you for the hat you sent me. Write me by Col. Menard. Send on the newspapers.

6 August 1925 (Folder 13) Point Pleasant, New Madrid County,. Missouri. S. G. Hopkins to Magr. Graham
My Dear Sir, Much excitement has been produced in this vicinity for the last two or three months in consequence of a prevalent rumour that the small settlements of Indians on the borders of the River St. Francis were to be forcibly broken up and their inhabitants removed beyond the White River . . . A correct knowlede of the St. Francis which runs parallel with the Mississipi for upwards of one hunded a[nd] fifty miles on a direct line, and at n place is more than twenty miles from it, is from one extent to the other sunk by earthquakes and filled with timbers which have died and fallen into the water, rendering it unavigable for every species of boats except canoes; the west (or lead) fork as it is termed enters from the high country which divides Black and White river from the tributaries the St. Francis; and from fifty miles from its confluence wit the east fork. has suffered equally, and is equally circumstanced as respects its navigation. An hundred miles above the junction of these two, a bay or bayon [bayou?] (as it is here treed) connect them together. Within the island thus formed; and at a very small elevation abve the level of the water, of the two rivers, spread over an immense surface as it is, by the sinking of the country, live those Indians in three villages. They consist of Shawnees, Delawares, and Muscogees Creeks. It seems as if providence in commiseration of their misfortunes had directed them thither, where white men will not live; and where there is just enough of fish, fowl, and game to minister to their subsistence. without encroaching on the rights of others. In their character UI am happy to bear witness, from two years residence in this neighborhood, that they are inoffensive, useful, and in some degree industrious. They raise good stocks of Horses, cattle, and hogs; and make a sufficiency of bread-stuffs fro home No charge of dishonesty has ever been, even colourably, sustained against them, and the little trade they furnish in furs, peltries, Bears, oils is extremely acceptable to our small community from its vicinity, and the facilities afforded in obtaining it. About three years ago three negroe men owned by George Colbert (a Chickasaw) were forced from his savage cruelty to abandon his service; and betook themselves to these villages They are still there. A. Walker of this County received authority from the son of Colbert to seize them. I was at the villages with him. The Indians did not object to his doing so; but for some cause unknown to me, he declined, and returned without them. In the transition [translation?], although an eye witness, I could not discover any thing reprehensible in the conduct of the Indians, They say it is a matter between Indians - that n white man is interested; and as it regards the permission given to the negroes to live among them, George Colbert alone is insured and that he, to their knowledge is a cruel unprincipled savage. I have said there's much on this subject, lest improper colouring from motives if reward, or profit, might have been given to it.
     In an interested point of view, as a citizen here, I should dislike the removal of the Indians, 1st because it would deprive us of their little trade, which operates at a great convenience and 2ndly because their occupancy of that isolated country keeps off worse neighbors. Will you be so kid as to give me your own and the views of the government of this subject as early as convenient,
     In the sentiments I have  expressed I know the whole community here heartily accord; and if necessary will unite in a petition to the government. It is probable my friend Capt. Lessieur (the oldest inhabitant of this part of the state and a respectable citizen in any country) will also make some statements on the subject You may especially rely on his information and knowledge of the country.
James Fork 2nd September 1825

Dr  [Dear] Peter, Inclosed [sic] you have the letters your Indians, one of them you will read to those Indians in presence of Magt. (?) Campbell.  Have sent you by Wagon, 150 pairs of small ear bobs, it is all I had & you will credit me for them. Your friend Mr. William Marshall was here Yesterday and was much displeased at some reports of some Indians. He was informed that you have told the Indians that you were the only one that could and would have goods, that him Marshall & Gillis & Boyer, credit was not good and that they could not have goods any longer, I told him that I was sure you never used such language and that it was false, Magt. Campbell told him the same. Should we be so lucky as to make an advantageous contract for skins, you will be informed in time yours ?? Pierre Menard

Ps I believe that James?? is the one who has made that report to Marshall
 (SMSU, Center for Archaeological Research, Folder 10)

20th September 1825
Sir I have the honor to enclose to you a statement of the claims of the Delawares for Horses stolen from them on there journey from Indiana to Missouri. These claims do not form and part of those which have already been laid before the Government. . .

20 September 1825. Anderson's Village John Campbell to Major R. Graham. Abstract (Folder13)
Will call on the Delawares for payment for stolen hogs as soon as proof can be obtained against them. Has warned that traders against giving credit on the faith of being paid out of Indian annuities and has lectured the Indians on the justice of unequal distribution of the annuities. Says that "puting a stop to there bringing in whiskey is moreally and physikally impossible." The Kikapoos have left their village for the Red River to make their winter hunt and the Piankeshaws left about the same time. The Delawares are dissatisfied at not receiving their iron as usual and [Chief] Anderson has heard that the Cherokees are planning war. Mentions Delaware Natcoming and Killbuck among others.

John Campbell to Major Richard Graham or Gov. Clark, St. Louis, 27 September 1825, Anderson' village. Abstract of document. (Folder 13)
Encloses Anderson's speech delivered on the murder of his son. Describes the incident of the son waiting behind his party to search for their stolen horses and of never being seen again. Feeling is high against the Osages who are suspected of the deed. Speaks of two interpreters who will receive twenty dollars per month. Asks Graham to send him writing paper and ink powder.

Andersons village October 1st 1825
Sir  Since my letter of the 28th was closed anderson has informed me of a man by the name of Sollomon [sic] Yokam hoo [sic] is just settled inside of the Delleware [sic] line and has erected a distillery on the other side of the line and has made a quantity of peach brandy and has been selling it for some time in quantities to the Indians; there is a number of those outlawd [sic] characters settled all below him hoo [sic] are also selling whisky [sic] constantly to the indians, if there cannot be some plan devised to remove them from that place, the Dellewares [sic] and Weas and all those lower indians will be a lost people before two years… can point out any way that this Yokam who lives on the indian land can be removed i wish you to doe [sic] soe [sic] if i had any assistance i would soon remove him but i am now left alone without a white man in the nation four or five old indians are left her [sic] with the chiefs to take charge of the Villages I am apprehensive i shall have some difficulties with one or two others that are living on the land before i get them off i am told that they will not pay there [sic] rents to the indians if soe [sic] what step is to be taken to compell [sic] them. I have just started Truit (?) and Conner again to notify them all that they must remove
your friend  John Campbell Sub Indian agent
Major R. Graham   
Indian agt 
(SMSU, Center for Archaeological Research, Folder

Perhaps 1826.
Subject: It is gratified his views are approved by the War Department. Met with some difficulty in bringing the Delawares and Shawnees to agree to become friendly with the Osages. Te Kickapoos are pleased with the idea of peace and will readily give their influence to carry it into effect. A small war party f Cherokees have killed a Frenchman and threaten to kill all those who trade with the Osages. Wishes to be instructed as to his power of granting licenses. Has been much pleased with the Delawares who desire to become farmers. They appear to be very industrious. Has furnished them with iron to shoe their horses an they are forced to go great distances for game, laming their horses in the process.
Persons: Delawares, Shawnees, Osages, Cherokees, Kickapoos, Revoir, Gov. Clark, Gov. Miller, Harrison, Johnson, Col. Menard, Anderson, Lapihinile
Places: Cote-sans-dessein, Missouri River, Fort Smith, Arkansas Territory, Black River, White River, Fort Wayne

(Folder 13) From the United States (Indianan Department To James Pool D.ed.
Foy my serving as Blacksmith for the Delaware Indians residing on James Fork of White River for the quarter ending the last day of February 1826 - $500 per annum $125.00.
     Received St. Louis March 1st 1826 of Richard Graham United States Indian Agent . . .For James Pool Pierre Menard Attorney in Fact

Delaware Village March 16th 1826

Sir   On my arrival at this place I find but few Of the indians have arrived but they are daily expected, One of the Dellewares [sic] arrived two days ago, and brings the accounts of the Dellewars [sic] and Kickapoos having killed five Osages on the waters of red river. There were ten Dellewares and ten Kickapoos who were hunting together at one camp, the Osages came to them and told them they had been to war against the Pawneas [sic]. They invited them to camp with them [.] they did soe, in the night [.] the Kickapoos proposed to the Dellewars to kill them [.] the Dellewares replied saying that there [sic] chief and there agint [sic] had told them that they must not doe [sic] any mischief while on there [sic] hunt. but before daylight they all concluded to join and tomhawk them, which they did
accordingly. They justify this act because the horse belonging to Andersons son hoo [sic] was killed was seen amongst the Osages, another reason they ?? that the Cherrokea [sic] chief told them that the Osages had killed eleven of his people last fall and one Shawny [sic] and one Delleware [sic] boy. The Cherrokea [sic] chief is now collecting all his wariors [sic] and intends striking the blow in about fore weaks [sic] there was when this young man left Marshalls trading town [emphasis added] on red river, about eight hundred collected from the different tribes, about 6 weaks [sic] since the Osages have killed five Dellewares [sic] among them was George White wj his father one woman and two boys, so soon as this news reached Natcoman on red river he started with five men determined to have scalps, the indians have all left red river on there [sic] way home[.] soe [sic] soon as they arrive I shall be able to get all the particulars, and will communicate them to you, there is at present soe [sic] many reports that I don’t think it necessary to notice them, I called what indians there were here soe [sic] soon as I arrived and delivered your speach [sic] to them alsoe [sic] Goviner [sic] Clarks letter, they appeard [sic] to be well satisfied with there [sic] contents, I am endeavoring [sic] to suppress the war as much as possible untill [sic] we shall hear from you what Col. McNears (?) has done with the osages. Lawfanialy? The second chief died about one ?? since I laid before the chiefs the map sent by me they are well pleased with the country, and soe [sic] soon as the Shawneas [sic] chiefs and Kickapoos chiefs arrive they will then visit that country on the Kansan river, I will send an express as soon as the indians all arrive I should be glad to have a Kickapoo interpretor when they arrive, I wish you to get all my letters out of the post office and send them, and some of the newspapers since the siting [sic] of the last congress, send Col. Mcnares [McNears]Letter as soon as possible, tell Goviner [sic] Clark Anderson will answer his letter by the next oppertinity [sic] give my best respects to Goviner [sic] Clark and family and remain Sir yours with Respect
John Campbell  U.S. Sub Indian agt

[Folder 13] Hix.s Torry Laurence County, Arkansas Territory, April 2nd 1826
John Rodney, Deputy Sheriff optionary with Joseph Horden Sheriffe
To John Campbell United States Sub Agent at James Fork of White River in the State of Missouri.
     This is to inform you that the party of Delaware Indians that hunted in the Swamps on the East Fork of this Territory have had three horses stolen by the Whites. . . other Whites that those Band of Indians have hunted near thoz have conducted themselves with uprightness and the most Poticular honest and civility.
     This from their friend by your most Humble Servant by request of the Indians and their William Gilliss

Delaware Annuity. Delaware Agency James Fork of White River June 10th 1826
We the chiefs, council men, & captains of the Delaware tribe of Indians do acknowledge that we have this day received from Richard Graham Unites States Indian agent the sum of Two Thousand Three Hundred Dollars the balance due us

 after deducting the sum of three hundred Dollars paid to ? ?? for the burning of his mill by order of the ???  in full for the annuity due to us by the acts of appropriation of congress of May 1790, 1810-1819 & 1822 in which our  ?? annuity is included, & we do hereby release the United States from any farther [sic] claims we have for annuity due in the present year- as witness our hands & seals this day & date above written
William Anderson x
In presence of John Campbell[,] Sub Indian agt  James Wilson  James Pool  Antoine Leclain   
Non-num-da-gum  x
Pe-che-na-ha-lous  x
Johnny Luielo?   x  
Pouishe?  x
Na-qui te’-ha-ta   x
Capt. Killbrick [Killbuck?]    x
Capt. Catchum  x
Capt. Patterson  x
Capt. Pipe   x
Capt. Beaver  x
(SMSU, Center for Archaeological Research, Folder 13)

Delaware Agency James Fork of White River 14th June 1826
Received from Richard Graham United States Indian agent the sum of Three Hundred & Sixty Dollars in full for the private annuity due to me for the year 1826 as promised by the courts on the part of the United States, at the Treaty of St. Marys in 1819 as witness my hand seal this day & date above written. 

Witness James Wilson his William V. Anderson chief of the Delaware Nation [XX] mark
(SMSU, Center for Archaeological Research, Folder 1)

Received from Richard Graham United States Indian agent the sum of Three Hundred & Sixty Dollars in full for the private annuity due to me for the year 1826 as promised by the courts on the part of the United States, at the Treaty of St. Marys in 1819 as witness my hand seal this day & date above written. 

Witness James Wilson his William V. Anderson chief of the Delaware Nation [XX] mark
(SMSU, Center for Archaeological Research, Folder 1)

June 10th 1826. Annuity Receipt Delaware Agency. James Fork of the White River. (Folder 13)
     We the chiefs, council men & captains of the Delawar tribe of Indians do acknowledge that we have this day received from Richard Graham United States Indian Agent the sum of Two Thousand Three Hundred dollars the balance due us, after deducting the sum of three Hundred Dollars to John Sample for the burning of his mill, by order of the Secty of War, in full for the annuity due to us by the acts of appropriation by Congress of May 1796, 1810 - 1819 & 1822 in which our Salt annuity is included, and we do hereby release the United States from any farther claims, we have for annuity due for the present year - as witness our hands seal this day & date above written. In presence of John Campbell, Sub Indian Agt James Wilson  James Pool  Antoine Le clair
William Anderson, Non-num-da-gum, Pe-che-na-ha-lous, Johnny Quick, Poushe, Na-qui-ti-ha-ta, Capt. Killbuck, Capt. Catchum, Capt. Patterson, Capt. Pipe, Capt,. Beaver

 [To:] Mr. John Rodney, Deputy Sheriff, Hix Ferry, Lawrence County [?] St. Louis, July 18th 1826.
     Sir  Your letter of date April 2 to Maj. Campbell Sub. Ind. Agent has by him been given to me. In this letter you state that there are three men by the name of Grays who have stolen horses from the Delaware Indians hunting in that neighborhood - that the character of the Indians while hunting was remarked for [appropriateness ?], honesty, and civility & recommend that these men may be prosecuted.
     From the term of your letter I am inclined to believe that you will render all the aid you can for the furtherance of justice to the poor Indian & to rid the neighborhood of such men, as would steal horses - to this end I have taken the liberty of addressing this to you, to ask you to furnish such evidence as you can to the attorney [be] the U.S.A. [?] Arkansas who will have these men indicted. In doing this I will reimburse you for all reasonable expenses you may be at bring these men to justice. Very respectfully, . . .R. Graham, U.S. [?]

* * *

Abstract of US Agent between 1 September 1825 and 1 September 1826. St. Louis,  Annuities paid to Indians by Rd. Graham [Delawares only included here.] [Folder 13]
Council Men & Captains of Delawares  $5300
Captain Catchum, Representative of Sassakinik a Delaware chief (deceased) $140
William Anderson Delaware Cheef  $1000


There seems to have been a lot of bickering about and between the various Indian traders as can be seen in this letter from William Marshall concerning William Gillis:

Dec. 8th 1826
Mr. James Campbell
     For I understand William Gillis has sent his pack horses loaded with Goods to to the woods to trade with the Indians which I consider a grand imposition on me for a man with out a lysence [sic] to Go and trade in that manner contrary to law to deprive me of my Just Credits for which reason I Request you to have him stoped [sic] As Quick as possible[.] you may be well assumed that he has no lycence [sic] to trade in that Quarter[.] i am in hopes for you will not fail to have him desicded [desisted] in his pursuit.         W. Marshall
Mr. James Campbell, Esqr. James Fork, Anderson Town

Marshall's letter is included here as it is the only correspondence that we presently have in his hand writing.]

* * *

From John Campbell at Delaware Village to Major Richard Graham, Indian Agent, near St. Louis December 9th 1826 (Folder 13)
Major R. Graham  Sir I write you a short note, giving you my opinion of matters things here. I am satisfied there is too many persons here acting as agents and advisors hoo [sic] are all working for there [sic] own interest. some it appears from indian reports don’t want the Dellewares [sic] to exchange there [sic] lands without the goverment [sic] consent to pay there [sic] debts I suppose to the traders, others want reserves of land made for them; others want pay for there [sic] buildings , some of the persons say if the agents will help them that they will assist the agents in affecting what they wish for the goverment [sic]. all those things combined together has more or less influence upon the mind of the Indians. permit me to further state to you that I think it bad pollicy [sic] to permit the traders to cultivate soe much of the indian soil and to keep such large stocks of horses and cattle in the neighborhood of the villages, and pay the indians no rent and sell them corn at an extravant [sic] price to them the indians have no encouragement to raise corn or stock, some of the traders are now clearing more land. those hoo [sic] have indian families of children I think ought to be allowed to cultivate soil sufficient to support there [sic] children but nothing more. I hope there will be a stop put to this grand imposition as soon as possible, you will very readily perceive from the above remarks from what source they come Indians are not very apt to make those remarks of themselves. I wish you to send me some washington papers by Mr Mitty and letters if any, since I enclosed you my report, Mr William Marshall has lodged a written report against Mr. Wm Gillis for having sent a number of pack horses to the woods with goods to trade with the Indians without license which is the fact, the goods are sent to the three forks of white river, for soon as Gillis arrived from St Genavive [sic] I informed him of Marshalls Report, and that I should hold him accountable for the forthcoming of the goods and ?? untill [sic] I should hear from you on the subject. I hope you will not delay giving me some instructions how to proceed, I wish you to answer my letter fully on the subjects above stated, you have inclosed [sic] Marshall letter. I have sent Col Menard a coppy [sic] of Marshalls letter as he is much interested in this affair. [[Chief] Anderson has called on me and expresses a wish that Mr Gillis may have license to trade on the three forks of white river, this you will be the best judge of yourself. I have permited [sic] Mr Gillis to remain at the three forks of white river untill [sic] I should hear from you as it was the  particular wish of Anderson, but he is not to trade any of the goods You have no idea of the high ground this gentlemen takes here he is more than agent. I  could say much more to you on this subject but let this suffice for the present, or untill [sic] I see or hear from you, which I hope will be soe soon as you can send me the answer. Did not intend saying so much in this note as I have (??) but this affair of Gillises has compelled me to do so.  this leter [sic] is only intended for you and myself.
I am Sir with Due Respect your John Campbell

From Pierre Menard to Richard Graham, Kas[kas]kia January 17th 1827 (Folder 13)
Majr. R. Graham, Saint Louis Dear Sir Your Favor of the 4th instant on the 23th November last. The Shawnees fifteen in number went at the Dellawar's town on James Fork For the purpose of going on Exploring the land near the Kansas Designed for there future and permanent residence. it appears by anderson's letter to me that the Dellawars were also ready to go but that after several Consultations it was agreed amonst them to pospone their Journey untill April next.
     [A paragraph about the Shawnee is not included here
     Mr. Johnson writes to me that he will be here next summer with a large Daputation of Different nations to Explore the countries west of the Mississippi.
     I hope to be able to go to soon. I am now getting strength vary fast . . .. Pierre Menard

Abstract of Merchandise to be Traded at James Fork of the White River with the Delaware Indians by William Gillis, 1827 (Folder 23)
3 point , 2 1/2 point, 2 point, 1 1/2 point, and 1 point Mna blankets; Scarlet , green, gray, lavender tint blue, gray tint cloth; Shrouds narrow card; Blue and White Ground Calico; assorted plaid, striped, bleached, brown domestics; bed ticking; Russia sheeting; chintz domestics; blue India, coin Madrass. and Turkey Red  handkerchiefs; thread, awls, and needles; single and double trigger rifles; man saddles; com[mon?] curb bridles; com curb snaffles; plated snaffles; powder lead; rifle flints; butcher, cartouch, inlaid knives; Wilson's butcher; China vermillion; bunches of cut and common assorted beads; horse bells; tincups; 1a, 2a, 3a size pans; beaver traps; military and black ostrich feathers; bunches of Morris Bells; ribbon no. 6, 4m 3; pipe tommahawks

1 September 1828 (Folder 13) Abstract
On 3 May 1828 1 Keg of Tobacco  196@25  $49.00 was furnished by B. L. Valle to Major John Campbell Sub Indian Agent for the Delaware Indians at the James Fork of the White River

Recd Kansas river Augt. 3rd 1830 of  William Marshall by the hand of Baptise
Peoria 95lb of good Shaved Deer Skins  25
          10 –“   do Coon            – do        25
 A?? Fur Company  By Wm Myers  Entr  [Entered] D[December] Kansas 1830   fr Menard &Valle
(SMSU, Center for Archaeological Research, Folder 1)
This item is of particular interest because it shows the possibility that William Marshall was in Kansas on this date. Editor]

27 September 1831. (Folder 23) Abstract of the inventory of merchandise transferred by William Gillis to "Kansas Outfit" in 1830 on the Delaware removal to Kansas.
3, 21/2, 1 1/2 point blankets; [the following cloths:] Savd [Savoyard?] list blue, green, grey blue; German linsy; Striped and plaid domestics; red, blue, and cotton striped furniture; Circassian plaid; red and blue Bombaze; light gr., fancy, red, furniture, French imitation, Merramack blue, Navy calicos; Cambric; dark blue, light blue silk; Valentia, ,chintz, Waterloo, German, white Gr, Rain Bow, dark gr., fancy, and red silk shawls; orange, Turkey red, fancy, Madrass, black silk. cross barred, Bandanna, and red handkerchiefs; Mantua and belt ribbands; blue and green narrow gartering; lavd [lavender] list scarlet cloth; worsted shirts; wool socks; lady's plaid cloaks; fox tail and red cock feathers; women and shop scissors; fine tooth ivory combs; paper covered sky glasses; spool thread and gro[cery?] spool thread; white boss balls; white wampum and fine black wampum; large and head hat bands; pierced, embossed brooches; pairs if ear wheels, arm, and wrist bands; large round ear bobs; common large brooches; hair knobs; silver lace; boxes of jewels; bunches of cut glass and blue agate beads; saddlebag p[ad locks; brass nails; trunks; cloves, allspice, and netmegs; vials of ol o [of] cloves and cinnamon; used double trigger rifle gun; cast, gears, and 3 horses


The following is the bibliography that was prepared by the Archaeological Research Center of the Southwestern Missouri University for use with its Archaeological  Project on "Delaware Town." It is their property and should not be used without their permission. It has been placed here to assist Lenape-Delaware researchers of the Lenape-Delaware History Site to help determine which items are pertinent to our research. The items in red are those that were originally selected by the Editor (Tom Hahn). This selection will probably be revised, partially because of the cost of reproducing the items.)

Folder 1 – Receipts, Annuity and Fur Trade

Annuity receipts-includes photocopy of original and word-processed copy
-Weas Indians, 1826
*** Delaware, 1826
-Kickapoo, 1826
-Peoria, 1826
-Piankishaw, 1826

*** William Anderson, private annuity, 1826

Other receipts-includes photocopy of original and word-processed copy

***-fur trade, Marshall and Peoria, 1830 (as pertains to Marshall and or/Delaware)

Folder 2 – Primary Source Letters

Letters- includes photocopy of original and word-processed copy

 ***- 1825 From Campbell listing charges against Wilson re: list of reasons to fire Wilson, interpreter for the Delawares, including cheating and stealing. - typed copy and original 

***-9/1825 From Pierre Menard to Peter [Menard?] re Marshall’s dissatisfaction with Gillis’s trade with Delaware
- typed copy and original

***-From John Campbell to Major R. Graham/Sir; 10/1/1825  re the continued supply of peach brandy being provided to the Delaware by  Solomon Yokum. - typed copy and original 

***-3/16/1826 From John Campbell to Sir/Graham re feud between the Delaware and Kickapoo and the Osage       - typed copy and original 

***-From Wm. Marshall to James Campbell; 12/?/1826  re infringement of Wm. Gillis on Marshall’s trade with the Delaware - typed copy and original

***-12/8/1826, to Campbell from Marshall complaint against Gillis re trading practices  - typed copy and original 

***-From John Campbell to Major R. Graham; 12/9/1826 re who has right to trade with Delaware, too many people acting as advisors to Delaware - typed copy and original

Folder 3 – Christian County Histories

-E. E. Patterson “A History of Christian Co., Missouri.”  1893 -rough photocopy with references to location of D-town (“Old Barry Gibson place”); names of early settlers in area (Pettijohn, Patterson); references to climate, flora & fauna of time period 

***“The History of Delaware Town”. Christian Co., Missouri: History & Families. Turner Publishing. Paducah, KY: 1998. p 33 -1 page description of Delaware Town -un-attributed, “probably written by Paul W. Johns” 

Folder 4 – Christian County Land Information

Annual Rural Directory of Christian County Missouri, 1974. -contains maps of townships with residents/owners as of 1974.
The Valliere Land Grant. Photo copy, no source.

The Ozarks Mountaineer. “…and History center Around Ozark-Delaware Town” May 1960. -brief written description of D-town history; detailed map of location of D-town as created by Winslow A. Kingman

Collier, Neville. “Ozark and Vicinity in the Nineteenth Century.” 1946.  -description of some events of the Civil War

Dekay, Sam & Rod S. Tucker. “The Investigation of an Early Archaic Site in  Northern Christian County Missouri.” Ozarks Chapter of the Missouri Archaeological Society Meeting: 03-06-1968. -discussion of lithics at 23CN643. 

Doss, Mary Brown. “Ozark Now & Then, History 1895-1965.” -place names, people of Ozark, and technology of Ozark, MO for above time period no specific D-town references 

Gardner, Bonnie A. “A Grand Daughter, A Missouri Love Story.” West Palm Beach, Florida, Malcolm Webber Publishing and Manufacturing Inc.: 1959.-photocopy -brief description of Indians around 1840 (?), Ozark, MO; subsistence  

General Highway Map, Christian County Missouri. Missouri State Highway  Department, Division of Planning: 07-28-1976. 

Johns, Paul W.  “Riverdale and the Finley River Patriarch.” The Ozarks Mountaineer.  Sept.-Oct. 1979; pp 31-33.-history of Riverdale near Nixa 

Missouri Historical Review. “The Missouri Reader, Indians in the Valley.” Part I, pp 5-95; part II, pp 225-258. -descriptions (lifeways, foodways, era) of resident and relocated Indians in area, primarily Osage 

Scarlett, Jerrold G. “A Community Profile for Nixa, MO.” 1977. -contains contour, slope, geological and soil maps for Nixa & surrounding areas -circa 1974 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.  1853. -2 photocopied pages of a book (cannot determine the title) referencing the rivers and terrain of region. 

Tong, Marvin E. “The Indian Heritage of Christian County.” Christian County, Its First One Hundred Years. Christian County Centennial. Mc. Vm Hoffman Press, Jefferson City, MO: 1959.     

“Petelo & Vicinity”. Christian County, Its First One Hundred Years. Christian County Centennial. Mc. Vm. Hoffman Press, Jefferson City, MO: 1959. -brief description of flora & fauna utilized by the Osage in area -brief description of historic artifacts associated with Osage - Pp. 208-209: description of Delaware’s arrival in Ozarks, how, who and where; refers to Delaware dressing in European manner, but adorning themselves with “beads, copper spangles, silver ornaments and fancy combs…” - also includes bibliography which might be useful for future additions to file 

1838 Plat map of Township 26N, Range 22W - location of Yocum distillery and house, school house 

Folder 5 – Trail of Tears

“The Trail of Tears in the Southeast Missouri Region”.  Map, The Southeast Missouri Regional Planning and Economic Development Commission. Perryville, MO  

Dowling, Denise. “Trail of Tears State Park, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri.” 10-11-2000. 

***Rees, Mark A. “On the Road to Removal: Delaware Settlement and Archaeological

Visibility in Southwest Missouri.” Presented to The Missouri Chapter of the Trail Of Tears Association, SMSU: 10-18-2000.-includes abstract of paper and transparencies for presentation 

Folder 6 – GLO Information                 

Garrison, A.F.  GLO Field Survey Notes and Maps: 1835. -typed copy of relevant text included with original notes -describes location of Delaware Village, refers to its location as “on the West bank of James Fork of White River” m-refers to contemporaneous road position 

GLO Field Notes, Missouri Surveys. Volume 362, 1835.  -complete photocopy accompanied by typed transcription of relevant portions  A. F. Garrison 

GLO Field Notes, Missouri Surveys. Volume 342, 1845. -complete photocopy accompanied by typed transcription of relevant portions - A. F. Garrison 

Folder 7 –Land Grants, Deeds, Counties

Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records Website, printout of       Land grants from Twp 27-N, Rge 23-W.-includes aliquot parts, accession # in BLM database, and owners with date referencing mid 1800’s -topo map with some names from this list handwritten in 

General Warranty Deed -deed for purchase of SE of NE sec 1, Twp 27, Rge 23 purchase by G.F.(?) Howard 02/24/1879 

Missouri Counties in 1821. Map: 08/01/1821. -map of MO counties at time of admission to statehood, 1821 

Folder 8 – Archaeology, Other

Marshall, Richard A. “The Delaware Bridge Cairn”. The Missouri Archaeologist.       Volume 18, no 4: 1956. -analysis and map of 23CN13 

Folder 9 – Material Culture

***Price, James E. “A Gun Repair Tool Kit for The Delaware Indians.” Early American Industries Assn, Inc.  Vol. 38, No. 2: June 1985.
-list of tools and iron furnished to Delaware Indians, 1822 from B. L. Valle on request of Major R. Grahams, agent.
-brief description of how those tools might have been used -letter from Morrow re same

-letter from Krakow re Bell Tavern Site (Dyer or Dyes Tavern)

 “Terms used in Indian Trade Goods” -photocopy of unattributed hand-out 

Brown, Ian W. 1979. “Bells” In Tunica Treasure by Jeffrey P. Brain, pp. 197-205. The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University and the Peabody Museum of Salem, Cambridge and Salem, Mass

Weatherford, Claudine. 1980. “Trade Bells of the Southern Plateau: Their Use and Occurrence Through Time”. Northeast Anthropological Research Notes 14(1):20-84. 

Connoway’s Bell Key – table 

Brown, Ian W. “Historic Trade Bells”. In South, Stanley, editor. 1975. The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers. Volume 10, Part 1: “Presented Papers at the Sixteenth Annual Conference, Gainesville, Florida”. Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. 

Two Basic types of bells and the various parts  -unattributed handout 

Trade Bell Inventory – Enclosed Globular Shaped Category (Form) - filled out with D-town example 

Notes on D-town Bell and Jim Feagan’s 6-2-04 visit 

Folder 10 – Primary Source D-Town Observations

***Smelser, Ruth. “The Delaware Indians in Missouri”. -source references provided, but no bibliography -refers to ocation of race track; layout of trading post -list of trade goods, 1827 

***Switzler, Wm. F. “A Trip to the South”. 01/14/1836. -photocopy of original and word processed copy -excerpt re visit to Springfield and Delaware Town -biographical sketch of Switzler [In the web site] 

Folder 11 – Location of Delaware Town

Correspondence re location of Delaware Town
 -from Melton to Lucille Upton
 -from Lucille Upton to Melton
 -from Melton to Tong
 -from Tong to Melton 

Melton, Senator Emory. “Delaware Town and the Swan River Trading Post 1822-       1831”.  Cassville, Mo: 1977[?]. 

Folder 12 – Treaties and Government Documents

Carter, Clarence Edwin. “The Territorial Papers of the United States 1819-1825” United States Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.: 1953.
“Treaty Signatories”. U.S. Statutes at Large, V. II. -photocopies from 1778-1829.
“Treaty”. Edwardsville, Illinois. -Kickapoo, 1819
“Articles of a Treaty”. Castor Hill, MO. -Kickapoo, 1832
“A Treaty”. Amendatory to Edwardsville -Kickapoo, 1820
“Schedule of Papers transmitted to Congress…”

-1822, re accounts of SIA’s for Michigan and Missouri -printout from the American Saints Papers 

Folder 13 – Richard Graham Papers (Distinguish from Folder 2)

Graham, Richard, assorted documents

-9/20/1811 letter from Benja. Howard regarding a late council to reconcile the Shawnee and Delawares with the Osage.
                  -from the P. Chouteau Maffitt [?] Collection MAS
                  -typed copy with original 

-12/10/1820 letter from James Mille to the President of the U.S., re settlement between Cherokee and Osage -typed copy with original

 -05/01/1820, to “Mr. Forsyth” ordering him to “counsel” the Kickapoo as to their  moving to the country for them on the Osage River-typed copy with original 

***-8/8/1821 letter from Dept. of War [Calhoun] to Menard and Graham re expenses of Delaware and poor hunting conditions -typed copy with original 

-11/12/21, letter regarding purchasing of Osage Territory. -typed copy with original 

***-03/04/1822, letter from Graham to U.S. Government requesting goods for  Delaware -typed copy with original 

-03/13/1822, letter to ‘sir’ from Joseph Roleste [or Rolette] -typed copy with original

***-07/1822, to new Superintendent of Indian Affairs [Clark] in St. Louis re different annuities for the tribes and efforts to move the tribes-typed copy with original 

***-08/07/1822, letter from Menard to Bright re satisfaction for Delaware re horse theft by Shawnee[?]-typed copy with original

***-10/03/1822, from Graham to Clark re movement of Delaware to new land, annuities and expenditure -typed copy with original 

***-11/06/1822, from Graham to James Wilson instructing him to deliver wampum and letters to the Delaware  -typed    typed copy with original 

-03/20/1823, R. Graham explanation of annuities to the auditor-typed copy with original 

***-01/21/1824, to Graham from Clark re interrelations between tribes, traders and  whites  -typed copy with original 

***-2/15/1824 letter to William Clark, superintendent of Indian Affairs from Menard re: subsistence and movement of Delaware -typed copy with original and MOHist summary

***-09/22/1824, letter to Clark from Graham mentioning the request by Delaware for additional trade allotment including the 3 forks of the White River -typed copy with original 

***-01/15/1825, to Gen. Wm. Clark re removal of Potawatomis, Kickapoo, Delaware from their hunting camps in Illinois to “their lands West of the Mississippi”; details their reluctance to do so as are attached to “lands of their fathers” and are aided in this by their fondness for whiskey -only a copy of the MOHist summary. No copy of original

******-01/20/1825 letter re theft of horses from Delaware by Osage. -where is this? 

-04/09/1825, from Graham to Adam Rittenhouse re trading license & forbidding  whiskey -only a copy of the MOHist summary. No copy of original 

***-05/19/1825, from Campbell to Graham re a new “building situation” opposite to  Anderson’s dwelling with a  “spring and good timber”; squatters and his authority  to deal with them;  Anderson’s dissatisfaction with the continued presence of   “the man selling whiskey to the Indians” -typed copy with original and MOHist summary 

-06/11/1825, from Graham to John Tipton, re demands of Delaware upon the     Miami for the murder of 6 Delaware -only a copy of the MOHist summary. No copy of original 

-07/08/1825, from Graham to Tipton re Delaware refusal to accept Miami payment for murders and their intentions to seek their own revenge; Graham proposes that the  Miami compensate the Delaware out of next year’s annuity -only a copy of the MOHist summary. No copy of original 

***-07/25/1825, letter to Graham from Campbell re the Delaware complaints on re distribution of their annuities; continuing difficulties re whiskey; problems with the Killbuck band and problems with Wilson as an interpreter        -typed copy with original and MOHist summary 

-7/29/1825, copy of a treaty with the Miamis authorizing payment to the Delaware out of their annuities to settle their previous difficulties -typed copy with original 

***-08/06/1825, letter from Graham from S.G. Hopkins re the settlements of Indians on the St. Francis River and the “excitement” the threat of removal is causing -typed copy with original and MOHist summary 

-09/01/1825, receipt for 1 horse ($60) of R. Graham, horse delivered to Sun Rodgers, a Shawnee -typed copy with original 

9/1/1825 an estimate “of the expenses attending the Delaware Agency” -typed copy with original 

***-09/20/1825, from Campbell to Graham re Delaware payment for stolen hogs;    impossibility of  preventing the influx of whiskey; Delaware dissatisfaction with not receiving their iron; Anderson’s intimation that Cherokee are preparing for war -typed copy with original and MOHist summary 

***-09/27/1825, from Campbell to Graham; contains Anderson’s speech re murder of   his son, Osage are implicated -typed copy with original and MOHist summary

***-9/29/1825 letter of legal claims requesting reimbursement for horses stolen from the Delaware on their journey between Indiana and Missouri. -typed copy with original 

-10/01/1825 letter from John Campbell to R. Graham re distillery belonging to Yokam; is requesting assistance to remove him (and other distillers) -typed copy with original and MOHist summary 

-12/18/1825 letter to Graham from John Tipton,  re relations between the Miami and the Delaware -MOHist summary only. No original letter 

***-1826[?], Graham letter re difficulties amongst different tribes. Sent iron to shoe horses because of Delawares laming them by having to travel long distances to hunt. Pleased at Delawares’ desire to become farmers and comment on their industriousness.  -MOHist summary only. No original 

***-03/01/1826 appointment of James Pool as blacksmith and pay -typed copy with original 

***-04/2/1826, letter from John Rodney to John Campbell re “whites” (Gray family) stealing Delaware horses     -typed copy and original 

***-1825-1826 abstract of private annuities paid to Anderson and Ketchum & others -typed copy and original 

***-06/10/1826, acknowledgment by the Delaware chiefs of receipt of $2,300, releases U.S. from further annuities for that year; signed by 11 chiefs & witnessed by John Campbell, James Wilson, James Pool, Antoine LeClaire      -typed copy and original 

-06/20/1826, letter re mediation of potential Osage-Delaware war-typed copy and original 

-07/17/1826, receipt to Antoine De hetre from R. Graham of $34 for accompaniment of Graham as packhorse man and hunter in peace-making efforts (Osage, Delaware) -typed copy and original 

***-07/18/1826, to John Rodney from R. Graham re: prosecution of Grays for stealing Delaware horses              -typed copy and original 

-9/1/1826, List of all Employees of the Indian Agency -typed copy and original 

***-12/09/1826, to Graham re William Gillis’s continued trading to the Indians without a license; “bad policy” to allow traders to cultivate and use so much Indian land -typed copy, original, and MO Hist summary  

***-01/17/1827, to Graham from Pierre Menard re movement of Shawnee and Delawares postponing a trip to explore the land -typed copy and original 

***-1828 abstract of purchases by Graham from Valle & Co. for tobacco gifts to Delawares and hawnees              -typed copy and original 

-12/3/1828 letter from John Campbell to R. Graham, re Gillis’ continued trading with Indians and the insubordination of Noel Dashney (interpreter) -typed copy original, and MO HIST summary 

-02/20/1829, To Campbell, inquiry into how much “baggage” has been brought in by the wagons of Gillis; response to continued insubordination by Dashney  (the interpreter for agent) -no original, only MO HIST summary 

-11/02/1830, to Wm. Lewis re statement of differences of account, refers to Gillis and his employment -no original, only MO HIST summary 

Folder 14 – Kansas Materials

Guide to American Indian Materials In the Collection of the Manuscript Department, Kansas State Historical Society. -identifies and describes material in collection relative to Indians 

Jennings, Warren A.  “The First Mormon Mission to the Indians”. The Kansas Historical Quarterly. pp 288-299.  Vol. 27, No. 3: 1971.-contains description of the movements of Chief Anderson’s band 

***Grimes, Richard S. “The Early Years of the Delaware Indian Experience in Kansas Territory, 1830-1845”. Journal of the West pp. 73-82. Vol. 41, No. 1:2002. 

Folder 15 - Silver

Fredrickson, N. Jaye. “The Covenant Chain Indian Ceremonial and Trade Silver”.       photocopy, complete  book including plates 

Roach, Ruth Hunter.  St. Louis Silversmiths. 1967.-description of coin grade silver-notes St. Louis silversmiths had coinage and some bullion to which they added “copper alloy…white metal, and tin, to make the ornaments for the Indian trinket  trade…”-p 31 notes payment received from Richard Graham for 100 silver brooches etc. 

Folder 16 – William Gilliss

Deposition of Joseph Philibert, James Gillis probate. -contains description of James Fork trading post and Gillis’ family members

 Document- Copy of License to trade at the Three Fork of White River granted to William Gillis 11/04/1827. 

Correspondence re Gillis material:
-letter from David Boutros to Marvin Tong
-response from Tong
-several photocopied portrait drawings of Gillis

Excerpts from the Anderson Scrapbooks and KC Journal 4/12/1909 (see reference in Boutros letter):
-includes Xeroxed copies of portraits of Gillis
-references to Gillis’ Indian “brides”, children and his house an life in KC
-also mentions Gillis being adopted into the Delaware tribe ca1819

***Morrow, Lynn. “Trader William Gilliss and Delaware Migration in Southern      Missouri. Missouri Historical Review. Vol. 75, #2.: 1981. pp 137-167 

***Sandy, Wilda. “William Gilliss c. 1797-1869.” Webpage printout from Kansas City      Public Library Special Collections. -brief biography of Gilliss, primarily in regards to K.C. 

Folder 17   - Gilliss Probate

Synopsis of the Litigation over the Estate of William Gilliss. Compiled by Norman &  Robertson, Kansas City, Ks: March 1, 1901. 

Transcript of the Gillis Probate 

Gillis, William: probate records, p 1-46; 1872.
-deposition of Oquas (wife of Gillis) at above court
-deposition of Eliza Bullet

Troost, Mary: miscellaneous papers re her inheritance and estate 

Folder 18 – Dixon Probate

Samuel Dixon probate records -rough transcriptions and photocopies of originals

Folder 19 – Local Archaeological Sites

Survey Sheets:  Archaeological Survey of Missouri

-23CN1: Delaware Bridge; Delaware Village
-23CN3/251: suggests is site of Delaware Trading Post; Gibson & Shelton Cemeteries
-23CN8: “Burial Ground”; note: site form indicates same as 23CN180
-23CN86: Brent Maples Site; includes update, supplemental report, note that probably same as 23CN155 & these forms have attached note re possible errors
-23CN113: Manley Cemetery
-23CN115: Baxter village
-23CN116: Nelson Ford Site/Village
-23CN118: Carter’s Field Terrace Site
-23CN146: Harrington Ridgetop Site

***-23CN164: Delaware Cemetery/Howard Cemetery

-23CN180: Bluff Cave Site
-23CN185: Harrington High Terrace-Slope
-23CN189: White’s High Terrace Site
-23CN190: White’s Low Terrace Site
-23CN194: Harrington Low Terrace Site
-23CN197: Sanders Cabin Site
-23CN198: Neal Site
-23CN199: Moody Terrace
-23CN200: Moody Pasture Site
-23CN211: Car 171; Dennison Low Terrace
-23CN529: Davis Ridgetop Site
-23CN530: Neal Flea Site
-23CN531: Neal Terrace Site
-23CN751: F.S. 4
-23CN752: F.S.

Historic Inventories

-no site number: Old White River Road 


-23CN150: handwritten description & notes

-Property description/owner for Delaware Survey

-copies of plat map of 27N 33W, CN, circa 1860

-Self, Burl & Ron Smith.  Map: “19th Century Missouri Tribes, Treaties, & Indian Removal”. Missouri Ethnic Research Project. No date.

Folder 20 – Residents of the D-Town area

T27N R23W

-surveyor’s notes, 1835
-list of cemeteries in this section compiled by Neal Lopinot
-notes on specific residents of early Christian county taken from Greene

 County Archives (?) 

***Folder 21 – Wilson Probate Transcription of the James Wilson Probate Records. 1999. -copies of originals included

Folder 22 – Delaware Population and Individuals

“The State of the Indians of Missouri Territory from Information 1837[?]” -copy; lists tribes, population, where situated and “remarks”
Adams, Richard C. “A Brief Sketch of the Sabine Land Cession in Texas…”  John Byrne & Co, Washington D.C.:  1901. p 59-62. -includes letter from John Campbell to John Jolly re relations between the Cherokee, Delaware, and Osage 

Photocopy:  Delaware Treaty signatories/U.S. Statutes at Large VII & Supplementary Article -includes signers from 1778 through 1889; includes James Fork Agreement 

Letter: From Thos. C. Howell to Justus R. Moll re treaties of U.S. Gov’t and Delaware Indians, includes copies of relevant statutes 

Miscellaneous Documents 

“Abstract of Expenditures made on account of the Emigrating Indians by Richard Graham U S. Indian Agent In the quarter ending on the 31st August 1825.”

“Estimate of the Probable Expenses of the Delaware Agency for ? for the year commencing 1 Sept. 1824 & ending 1 Sept. 1825.” 

“List of Persons employed in the Indian Department with their place of nativity & salary”.  -undated & un-attributed 

Folder 23 – Merchandise Invoices

“Abstract of Articles purchased on account of Indian presents Richard Graham  United States Indian Agent In the quarter ending on the 21st August, 1825”

***“Invoice & Bond of Wm. Gilliss for James Fork” (1827)-invoice of merchandise to be traded with Delaware 

***“Invoice of Sundry Mdse. Delivered Kansas Outfit by Wm. Gillis for acct.  of Menard and Valle” (1831) 

“Invoice Wm. Gillis for Three Forks” (1827)-goods to be traded with the “Delaware Shawnee NN Tribes of Indians” 

“Invoice of Merchandise the property of L. Valle Agent of the Firm of B.L. Valle Co  to be Traded at the White Walnut Mill on the waters of the St. Francis River with the

 Shawnees, Muskogees, Delaware Indians Nco” (1827)   

***Invoice:  articles delivered to the Delaware Indians from December to May 1826                                              

“Invoice of Merchandise the property of Louis Valle Agent of the Firm of B.L. Valle Co. to be trades at the Junktion [sic] of the Jocks [sic] and Osage River with the Delaware, Shawnees, and Kickapoos tribes of Indians” (October 1827) -typed transcription accompanies photocopy 

Folder 24 – Marvin Tong Papers

Tong Jr., Marvin E. “Historic Delaware Village Near Springfield, Mo.”-undated -numerous drafts and editions
Letter: From Earl Wright to Marvin Tong re Chief Sarcoxie, c. 1950
Letter: From Ward Schrantz to Marvin Tong re Chief Sarcoxie, c. 1950
***Letter: From Mary Smith Witcher to Marvin Tong re Chief Anderson’s children and Grandchildren, c. 1954
Letter: From Norine Criger Watts to Marvin Tong re Delaware Trail, c. 1950
Letter: From C. C. Forbis to Marvin Tong re Delaware Cemetery, c. 1967
***Letter: From Mary Smith Witcher to Marvin Tong re Tong’s book, c. 1954 

Listing of Tong’s references, includes: Switzler, Peck, Schultz, Long, Monk, Philibert  and “A Reminiscent History of the Ozark Region” and “History and Directory of Springfield”.  -includes complete bibliographical info 

Folder 25 – Terrell Probate

William Terrell Probate, 1866

Folder 26 – William Clark Papers

“William Clark’s Diary May, 1826-February, 1831”.  Ed. Louise Barry  The Kansas Historical Quarterly. Vol. XVI, No. 1: 1948. 

Letter: From Thomas Mosely Jr. to Genl Wm Clark re the relocation of “a few wandering bands of Indians”, c. 1835 -transcript copied from the Foreman papers  

Folder 27 – Westward Migration and the Cultural Change

***Banks, Alan. “The Delaware Immigrants”. The Ozarker, 1979. pp 17-18 

Barry, Louise. “The Beginning of the West.” Annals of the Kansas Gateway  to the American West 1540-1854.  Topeka, KS: 1972. 

Farley, Alan W. “The Delaware Indians of Kansas 1829-1867.” Presented to the  Kansas City Posse of the Westerners, Grinter House, KC: 1955. 

“Lulu Linear Punctated: Essays in Honor of George Irving Quimby.” Ed. Dunnel, Robert C. and Donald K. Grayson. Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: 1983. p 200. -includes an analysis of the Delaware’s fur and skin sales to Menard & Valle, 1829-31

***Harrington, M.R. “Religion and Ceremonies of the Lenape.” Indian Notes and Monographs. Ed. F.W. Hodge. New York: 1921.

Letter: from Lynn Morrow to Jere Krakow re Delaware, c. 1990

Letter: from Lynn Morrow to Neal Lopinot re student summer survey project, - c. 1999 -includes copy of research design from 1980 

From the Kansas State Historical Society: copies of library index cards of  holdings they have pertaining to the Delaware Indians; 33 in all

Folder 28 – William Marshall

Probate Court Records 1833-1836, vol. 1, Greene County.-in regards to Marshall estate 

“Marshall Family-Delaware Town”. From: Grinter and Marshall Families pages. Lenape Mirror web site: 07/21/03.

 William Marshall: printout from the Green Co. Archives re his estate

Folder 29 – Secondary Sources on Delaware Culture

“Delaware Indian Reminiscences”, “The Delaware Indians Past and Present”,

      “Documented Subdivisions of the Delaware Indians”. The Bulletin of the

      Archaeological Society of New Jersey. Vol. 35. South Orange, NJ: 1978. 

“A Delaware Indian Symposium” Ed. Herbert C. Kraft. The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Harrisburg: 1974. Pp. 57-160. 

Kinietz, Vernon. “Delaware Culture and Chronology.” Indiana Historical Society. Vol. 3, No. 1. Indianapolis: 1946. Pp. 7-138. 

“The Lenape Indian a Symposium.” Ed. Herbert C. Kraft. Archaeological Research Center Seton Hall University. South Orange, NJ: 1984. 

Newcomb, William W. “The Culture and Acculturation of the Delaware Indians.” Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.  Ann Arbor: 1956. 

Kraft, Herbert C. “The Lenape Archaeology, History and Ethnography.” New Jersey Historical Society. Newark: 1986. 

“Native American Cultures in Indiana.” Proceedings of the First Minnetrista Council for Great Lakes Native American Studies. Ed. Ronald Hicks. Muncie, Indiana: 1992. 

Weslager, C.A. “Lenape Ethnology from William Penn’s Relation of 1683.” Bulletin  of the Archaeological Society of Delaware. No. 18, New Series. Delaware: 1985.

Folder 30 – Period Histories

Holcombe, R.I. “History of Greene County, Missouri 1883.” Chapter 1.  InternetDownload from: http://the library.springfield.missouri.  07/02/03. 

“The McCullough Community and Williams Township Stone County, Missouri.”

White River Valley Quarterly. Vol. 9, No. 3, Spring 1986. -excerpt re Philabert 

Schoolcraft, Henry. “Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States.” BIA: 1847.     

 Folder 31 – Pierre Menard Papers

***“Guide to the Microfilm Edition of the Pierre Menard Collection in the Illinois State Historical Library.” Illinois State Historical Society, Springfield, IL: 1972. 

Letters, originals includes with typed transcription
-June 30, 1821 to P.A. Lorimer re: oil for the Delaware
-Aug. 31, 1825 to Delaware Town re: trusting Lomimer during hunting party 

Folder 32 – Great Lakes Indians

“Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History.” Ed. Helen Hornbeck Tanner. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman and London. 

Folder 33 – General Overview of Delaware Indians

American Indians. Cons. Henry Markowitz. Vol. II. Salem Press, Englewood Cliff, NJ. Pp 430-434.

Foreman, Grant.  “The Last Trek of the Indians.” Russell & Russell, New York: 1972. Pp. 34-37. 

“Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico.” Ed. Frederick Webb Hodge.Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30; part 1. Washington Government Printing Office: 1912. Pp. 385-387. 

Philhower, Charles A. “Some Personal Characteristics of the Lenape Indians.” Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society. Presented at the Annual Address before the New Jersey Historical Society, 09/29/1949. Pp. 138-161 

Folder 34 – Cape Girardeau Indexes and Abstracts

Parkinson, Ann & Bob Parkinson. “Abstracts and Index of Volume I District of Cape Girardeau General Quarter Sessions of the Peace 1805-1809 and Volume II

      District of Cape Girardeau Court of Common Pleas 1805-1807.” Cape Girardeau County Archive Center, Jackson Mo: 2003. -includes references to Delaware Indian Racoan -letter from Lynn Morrow to Neal Lopinot re same 

“Abstracts and Index of the Docket Books for the Justices of the Peace, Byrd Township, County of Cape Girardeau, State of Missouri”. In Three Volumes. Cape Girardeau County Archive Center, Jackson, MO: 2003. -coversheet only 

“Volume III Territory of Louisiana, District of Cape Girardeau, Court of Common Pleas, Minutes of the Proceedings 1808-1812.” Cape Girardeau County Archive Center, Jackson, MO: 2003.

Folder 35 – Correspondence

Morrow, Lynn -research notes re Delaware town -rough draft of “Rendezvous for a Nation: the Delawares on James River.”

***-clean copy of “Rendezvous for a Nation: the Delawares on James River

-letter from Lynn Morrow to Mr. Crawford @ the MO Historical Society re sources for Delaware information
-letter to Lopinot (2000) regarding possible religious revival activities among the Ketchums
-letter to Lopinot (2000) regarding primary sources for Delaware information
-letter to Lopinot (2001) regarding Louis and Clark maps and the Geographic Resources Center
Deborah Nichols[-Ledermann]
-2003 letter to Lopinot re Delaware references, Saucier family connections

“In Regard to the Travels of ‘Where He Was Seen’”. Museum of the Fur Trade Quarterly. Fall 1996. -footnote 7 details the Delaware and Shawnee being advance parties in New Mexico  

Folder 36 – Miscellaneous: Pictures, Diagrams, References


***-un-attributed picture photocopies of Delaware chiefs 

-photos of artifacts recovered from D-Town excavations 

-un-attributed Delaware phratry diagrams -assorted handwritten notes, no attribution

Pipe tomahawks made from brass, steel, pewter. Many were made by Indians themselves. Discusses methods of manufacture. Includes a long inventory and pictures of many tomahawks in public and private collections.  

Orchard, William C. 1975 Beads and Beadwork of the American Indians. Contributions form the Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation Vol. XI. LaSalle Litho, New York. SMSU E 51.N42 vol. 11 

An overview of bead types and methods of manufacture. Lots of color photos. Not very applicable to Delaware Town. 

Oglesby, Richard Edward 1963 Manuel Lisa and the Opening of the Missouri Fur Trade. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. SMSU F 598.O3 

A bibliography of Manual Lisa, an early fur trader of St. Louis. He spent a lot of time in the Middle Missouri trading with tribes such as Osage, Oto, Sioux, Arikara, Gros Ventre, Mandan, Crow, Blackfeet, Omaha, Arapaho, Missouri, Ponca. Many of his crew had gone on the Lewis and Clark expedition. He wanted to trade along the Santa Fe Trail. Also discussion of other fur traders, politicians, and financiers of St. Louis, including Chouteau, Menard, Clark, Delassus, Lorimier, Morrison, Droulliard, Colter, Morrison, Labbadie, Austin, O’Fallon, Pilcher. Formed Missouri Fur Company to compete with Chouteaus, Astor (American Fur Company), and Hudson’s Bay Company. Talks about troubles with the British. Manuel died in 1820, just at the formation of Delaware Town. No mention of Gillis or Valle. Appendix includes the fur trade collection at the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis 

Sunder, John E. 1968 Joshua Pilcher Fur Trader and Indian Agent. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. SMSU F 598.P5 S8 Pilcher took over for Manual Lisa in the fur trade on the Missouri. A lot of the same people and tribes involved. Not directly applicable to Delaware Town. 

Quimby, Goerge I. 1966 Indian Culture and European Trade Goods. University of Wisconsin Press, madison. SMSU E 78.G7 Q49 Great Lakes area. Good discussions of various types of goods, including silver, brass, bells, bottles, kettles, medals, beads, iron, Jesuit rings, firearms, ammunition, flints, tomahawk pipes, tinkle cones. “The conical tinklers were made of rolled up trapezoidal sections of sheet brass that were fastened to buckskin fringes to give a tinkling sound with motion. The arrowheads were either conical or flat triangular in shape…The brass arrowheads are rare or lacking in the Late Historic period [1760-1820] of the western Great Lakes region” (p. 72). Has pictures of several types of beads. Has a list of silversmiths. 

Mooney, Michael MacDonald 1975 George Catlin, Letters and Notes on the North American Indians. Clarkson N. Potter, New York. SMSU E 77.C38 I looked at these books to try to find pictures of artifacts and clothing. Catlin was not one for excruciating details, so I was not very successful. There is a short section on early American history, including St. Louis fur traders, Lewis and Clark, Indians on the East Coast (including Delaware). Notable pics of “The Prophet.” Short description of the Delaware “The name of these Indians once carried terror wherever it was heard” (p. 309) and other tribes including Shawnees, etc.  

Catlin, George 1973 Letters  and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of the North American Indians, 2 volumes. Dover Publications, New York. SMSU E 77.C38 Very similar to above, but with slightly different form and order.  

LaFarge, Oliver 1956 A Pictorial History of the American Indian. Crown Publishers, New York. SMSU E 77.L245 A nice series of pictures, from museum dioramas, historical documents, and “modern” photographs. Some of the famous ones that occur in many books, etc. Drawing of Delaware ca. 1800 (p. 81) with silver cone and ball earrings. 

Hale, Duane K (editor). 1984. Turtle Tales: Oral Traditions of the Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma. Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma Press, Anadarko. SMSU E 99.D2 T87 

The Western Delaware are not the ones that had been in Springfield so not directly relevant. Some interesting stories, medicinal customs, and genealogy.

Spell check A.